Original essay on: Defining and Measuring Servant

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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/4913979Defining and Measuring Servant
Leadership Behaviour in
OrganizationsArticle in Journal of Management Studies · March 2008DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00761.x · Source: RePEcCITATIONS133READS5,5353 authors, including:James C SarrosMonash University (Australia)74 PUBLICATIONS 1,502 CITATIONS
SEE PROFILEAvailable from: James C Sarros
Retrieved on: 11 November 2016Defining and Measuring Servant Leadership Behaviour
in OrganizationsSen Sendjaya, James C. Sarros and Joseph C. SantoraMonash University, Clayton, Australia; Monash University, Clayton, Australia; Thomas Edison State
College, Trenton, NJ, USAabstract This paper examines the development and initial validation of a multidimensional
measure of servant leadership behaviour (Servant Leadership Behaviour Scale). Both
qualitative and quantitative studies are reported to establish preliminary psychometric
properties for the new 35-item, six-dimension measure. The resultant servant leadership model
is characterized by its service orientation, holistic outlook, and moral-spiritual emphasis,
thereby extending current models of servant leadership and existing works on contemporary
leadership approaches. Theoretical contributions, practical implications, and future research
directions are discussed in the concluding section of the paper.INTRODUCTIONContemporary organizations are plagued by systemic problems such as bullying leadership (Einarsen, 1999), abuse of power (Sankowsky, 1995), unethical practices (Currall
and Epstein, 2003), toxic emotions (Frost, 2003), social isolation and alienation in the
workplace (Sarros et al., 2002), and the violation of employees’ psychological well-being
and work-life balance (De Cieri et al., 2005; Thornthwaite, 2004; Wright and Cropanzano, 2004). These chronic problems are epitomized in the demise of Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, and scores of other companies in the United States and globally. In this
context, the interest in value-laden leadership research under the terms transformational
leadership, authentic leadership, spiritual leadership, and servant leadership should
come as no surprise. In this paper, we present servant leadership as an emerging
leadership approach that appears more relevant and timely in the present context than
other value-laden leadership approaches. More specifically, we argue that our servant
leadership model extends the works on these complementary leadership approaches and
existing alternative servant leadership models by virtue of its emphasis on service,Address for reprints: Sen Sendjaya, Department of Management, Monash University, Wellington Road,
Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia (sen.sendjaya@buseco.monash.edu.au).© Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2008. Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK
and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA.Journal of Management Studies 45:2 March 2008
0022-2380follower, and moral-spiritual dimensions, as delineated in the following section. We
believe that there is a need to develop and validate a holistic construct of servant
leadership that incorporate these dimensions.WHY SERVANT LEADERSHIP?In this section we examine the similarities and differences between servant leadership
and other contemporary leadership models, namely transformational, authentic, and
spiritual leadership.Transformational LeadershipGraham (1991) and Farling et al. (1999) asserted that ser…

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