This speech, written and analysed using critical discourse

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Things.
a happier planet & a happier you
MPM732 Critical Thinking for Managers
Assignment 2
Josephine Turner
217354372
Table Of Contents.
1.0 Introduction………………………………………………….1
2.0 Speech and Analysis…………………………………………2
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………..2
2.2 Ethos………………………………………………….3
2.3 Pathos…………………………………………………4
2.4 Logos………………………………………………….5
2.5 Conclusion…………………………………………….6
3.0 Conclusion…………………………………………………….7
4.0 References……………………………………………………..8
This speech, written and analysed using critical discourse analysis and other theories is a speech for a book
launch.
A small crowd in a bookstore in London gather to listen to author, Josephine Turner, launch her book about
minimalism entitled “Things. A Happier Planet & A Happier You.”
There are 5 distinct sections of the speech, following Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion of ethos, logos,
and pathos, i.e. a persuasive speech using ethical, logical, and emotive reasoning to introduce the book and
identify its concept; as well as influence attendees at the launch to purchase (Aristoteles and LawsonTancred, 2004).
(fig.1 screen shot of podcast recording)
1.0 Introduction
Structure
Theory,
Lecture
Speech
Analysis
2.1
Introduction
Qualitative
Process
Relationships,
L9
The theory of
concepts, L5
Brookfield’s
language
tricks, L4
Hello.
Thank you for coming.
As I was getting dressed to come out here today to talk to
you I put on a navy jumper that I bought about 3 months
ago and have worn for a total of three hours since.
I didn’t like the way that it felt, so I took it off and put it
back in the drawer.
I remember buying the jumper. I was on my way to meet a
friend for brunch and was wearing a different navy jumper
that I decided on the way to the cafe was the wrong kind of
navy. My life wasn’t going so great at the time: I hated my
job, my financial situation was abysmal, my landlord was
about to sell my house. I convinced myself on the way to
the cafe to meet this friend that wearing the wrong shade of
navy was equivalent to wearing a big flashing neon sign
that said “MY SHIT IS NOT TOGETHER,” so I went into
the H&M I was walking past and spent £20 on a jumper
that was the ‘right’ shade of navy.
Like I said, I’ve worn it once.
I’m here today to launch my book, and to talk to you about
its concept, about its ideas. I’m here today to talk to you
about minimalism. This book, “Things – A happier planet &
a happier you,” explores minimalism in the micro and
macro. In how streamlining your existence not only
enriches your life, not only the lives around you, but our
planet as a whole.
This introduction launches by immediately
employing one of the Brookfield’s language tricks of
using a personal story to set the tone of the speech
(Brookfield, 2012).
By doing this, the speech is using the personal story
to make the idea of minimalism relatable to the
audience before even introducing it as a concept. By
using this narrative to communicate ideas to a crowd
who presumably have a preexisting interest in the
ideas of minimalism, the audience immediately
establish a personal relationship with the speaker.
To introduce a concept to an audience you must
identify, describe, distinguish and relate the ideas so
that it is tangible, and can be understood entirely. The
narrative opens up the floor to then identify the
concept in the second paragraph, and introduce the
book.
2.0 Speech & Analysis
Structure
Theory,
Lecture
Speech
Analysis
2.2
Ethos
The theory of
concepts, L5
Aristotle 3
Modes of
Persuasion,
L3
Conditionals,
L8
Reflection,
Dewey, L9
When you search the word minimalism online you’re
presented with images of eucalypts leaves, monochromatic
apartments, overuse of the colour white. Culottes. Kinfolk
magazine. Succulents, IKEA, Stan Smiths – and for some
reason – avocados. But I’m not here to talk about
minimalism the fashion movement; I’m here to talk about
minimalism the movement. The act of living deliberately,
and the power that that can give you.
When I went into H&M and bought the right-shade-of
navy-jumper it had a monetary value of £20. But what
value did it add to my life? Did I purchase it deliberately?
Of course not. I…

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#075

Toward the Valorization of Lexical Obfuscationizationism in Academic Discourse: Some Recommendations

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by Rick OaksDoctoral Dissertation Writing Consultant, Dissertation Editor, Qualitative and Quantitative Research Consultant Suffixation: A suffix is a morpheme added at the end of a word to form a derivative, e.g., -ation, -fy, -ing,-it is (My computer, July 16, 2016). Suffixation can be a powerful tool in the arsenal of academic writers; it can turgidifyRead more about Toward the Valorization of Lexical Obfuscationizationism in Academic Discourse: Some Recommendations[…]
Topic: Toward the Valorization of Lexical Obfuscationizationism in Academic Discourse: Some Recommendations

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#075

Relationship between ideology, discourse, interpellation and subjectivity

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Write an essay” in which you discuss the relationship between ideology, discourse, interpellation and subjectivity through an analysis of a text of your choice- Explain…
Topic: Relationship between ideology, discourse, interpellation and subjectivity

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#075

Why do we use a discourse community to understand language?

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Why do we use a discourse community to understand language?
You need to know Concept of Discourse Communities
( GOOGLE IT )
You need to know Genre :
Genre canTells me how people in the group relate to each other:
Relationships range: personal to formal
Leaders/experts Become clearer
Genre Can help me organize my paper:
Arrange By social media, formal electronic communication, printed documents,etc.
Genre Can tell me how the group does business/meets its goals: Sometimes, Explicitly stated
Genre Can Tells Me what niche (collective identity) group occupies (Android users/Apple users)
OUT LINE
1) INTRODUCTION
Answer:
Why do we use a discourse community to
understand language?
End with thesis statement.
Consistent observation, [specific
documents], and an interview with
[expert/novice name & title] reveal
[discourse community name]’s
mechanisms/ communicative
aims/goals/ideas about [concept]
(2SUMMARIZE SWALES’S
CHARACTERISTICS
One strategy:
Introduce a characteristic (w/citation)
Explain characteristic (w/citation)
Provide examples
Ex. Swales requires “specific lexis” of any group th
at might be called a discou
rse community (222). He
does not rule out terms that can be used in other
contexts (222). For instance, a group of roommates
might be just as concerned with parking as a communi
ty of factory workers, and words related to that
idea can be found in both communities. His em
phasis, however, is on “shared and specialized
terminology” as a way to understand group dynami
cs through communicative formats (222). It would
be more valuable, for example, to know that in Professor Myers’s class, “DCA” is a common
abbreviation for a major assignment than to know that
instructor uses the phrase “freak out” frequently.
3 BASIC INFO
Consider
What makes this group a discourse
community?
What makes the analysis of this DC
unique or interesting?
What matters to members of the
community? What do they do? What
do they value?
3) METHODOLOGY
How did I gather my data?
How often did I observe my DC? In what setting?
Whom did I interview? Why was this person selected?
4) APLY SWALES’S CHARACTERISTICS TO
MY DC
Why does the group exist? What does the group do? What are its shared goals?
How do group members communicate with one anot
her (e.g., meetings, phone calls, e-mail, text
messages, newsletters, reports, evaluation forms, blogs, online bulletin boards, etc.)?
What are the purposes of the group’s communicati
ons (share information, reinforce values, make
money, improve performance, offer support, declare identity, etc.)?
Which of the above communications can be considered
genres
(i.e., textual responses to recurring
situations that all group members recognize and understand)?
What kinds of specialized language (
lexis
) do group members use in their conversations and in
their written genres?
Who are the “old timers” in the group with expert
ise? Who are the newcomers with less expertise?
How do newcomers learn the appropriate language, genres, and knowledge of the group?
5) ANALYSIS
Are there conflicts wi
thin the discourse
community? If so, about what? How do their
genres address those conflicts?
Which genres help the
discourse community
work toward their goals most effectively?
Do some participants in the community have
difficulty speaking or writing within it? Why?
Who has authority in the discourse
community? How was that authority
established? How is authority demonstrated
in written and oral language?
6) CONCLUSION
What can my readers take away from this essay?
What future work can be done with the work I’ve accomplished here?
MORE INFO
Purpose
The purpose of this assignment is to help you more fully understand how discourse communities use language to function and accomplish their purposes and goals.
Getting Started
Description
Your goal is to compose an interesting description and insightful analysis of the language practices (spoken and written) of a discourse community of your own choosing.
Identify a discourse community that interests or intrigues you. You may be a member of that discourse community; you might be an outsider. For our purposes, a discourse community could be any group of people who identify themselves as a group. Some possibilities include a church group, a fraternity or sorority, a club or team, a social organizat…

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#075

Original essay on: Discourse analysis Project:

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in this project, it has to have Introduction, Background or Literature review (includes 2 articles), Data collection/methodology, and Analysis (ex: 3 out of 10 people use apologize). This report has to have 8 references.
Discourse analysis project report
With this assignment students are expected to demonstrate their ability to apply discourse related concepts to the analysis of authentic discourse such as conversations or texts. Length requirement: 1,500 words (not including appendices, the data and the reference list). Students must use at least 8 academic references for this assignment.
The report can be organised as follows: Introduction to the project, background on the researched topic; analysis of the discourse data; discussion and conclusion of the project. Detailed instructions for conducting the discourse analysis projects will be discussed in class and will be available on the unit Canvas site. Students can consult chapter 10 of the main textbook about conducting a discourse analysis project.
Students can choose to undertake one of the following discourse analysis projects and should consult the unit convenor on their choice.
Choice 1. Students can choose to investigate how people perform and/or reply to a speech act such as complaining, apologising, complimenting, agreeing or disagreeing etc. Data will be collected by a means of a questionnaire. Students are expected to design appropriate discourse completion tasks for their questionnaire and collect data from participants. A comparison of speech act realisations between two languages can also be undertaken. Students will need to use appropriate speech act theory concepts for analysing their data.
Choice 2. Students can choose to analyse 3-4 minutes of everyday talk, radio or TV show based on their preference and interests. Students will need to decide on the focus of their analysis in consultation with the unit convenor. Students will need to ******iorecord the conversation, radio or TV show and transcribe 3 pages of conversation using conversation analytic conventions (Jefferson, 1984). A list of the transcription conventions are available in the main textbook and the Canvas site. Students are expected to employ conversation analytic (CA) principles to analyse the conversation, such as adjacency pairs, repair, preference organisation etc.
Choice 3. Students will need to analyse a text, or series of texts (such as an ad, a news article, a political speech, an email, internet discourse) using the tools of critical discourse analysis.
*(Choice 1. This is a straightforward assignment and options are given in the unit outline.
The focus can be the speech act of:
complaining, apologising, complimenting, agreeing or
disagreeing etc within the Australian context, or even a different cultural context.
The assignment can also include comparison of a speech act between males and females, two
different cultures, different age groups, or formal and informal situations.
Choice 2: CA topics:
Beginnings of a radio show
Telephone talk between two friends
Analysis of turn taking at a TV talk show with a moderator
Comparing openings/closings of two telephone conversations
Analysis/evaluation of telephone openings and closings in an ESL textbook; How do they
resemble conversation analytic research?
*Avoid choosing a dialogue in a scripted movie or a TV series
Choice 3: Possible CDA topics
Analysis of political speeches
Comparison between Kevin Rudd’s sorry speech to Aboriginal people and Gough Whitlam’s
speech to the Gurindji people
Comparison between Trump’s victory speech and other victory speeches
Analysis of the language of ads, or subgenres of ads
Analysis of the language of horoscopes
Comparison of horoscopes in male and female magazines
Analysis of a news report on the same issue in two different newspapers, such as The Sydney
Morning Herald and The Australian
Analysis of the language/genre of estate agents reports on all classifieds
From the unit convenor: Dr Eleni Petraki, )

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#065

Taboo discourse

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write an essay (2,500-3,000w) about the following topic:
Taboo discourse:
Analyse the discourse around mental health. Are mental disorders still taboo? How is this topic treated in the media?
You can either use Australia or another country as a case study and research how international communication impacts developments in this country, or you can compare discourses about mental health in two different countries.
In either case, discuss how political and cultural changes impact public opinion. Identify cultural influences that may change attitudes towards mental health issues such as anxiety and depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.

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#065

What is discourse? What are some examples

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What is a discourse?
The term ‘disourse’ comes from a Latin word ‘discursus’ which means ‘running to and from’. A discourse denotes both written and spoken communications. It is basically the conceptual generalization of a conversation within each context. Therefore, Discourse = Language + Context (that is, contextualised language).
Foucault defines a discourse as “an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are statements in a conversation.” A discourse is made up of a sequence of signs. Hence, the analysis of a discourse examines connections among language, structure, and agency. In simple terms, one may say that a discourse is a body of text meant to communicate a specific data, information, or knowledge. The scope of a discourse is that it is influential and aims at the construction of knowledge.
In this way, a discourse is a system of statements through/within which we understand the world. It helps one to make sense of the reality and the world we are surrounded by. A discourse can be defined as an authoritative writing on any specific topic or subject. The network of statements that form a discourse may vary from being linguistic units (of say ten to fifteen lines) to having wider historical, social, or cultural contexts.
In other words, a discourse is the totality of codified language, or vocabulary, used in a given field of social practice, for instance, legal, medical, or religious discourse. For example, various religious institutions have their own discourses of salvation and ideal living, et cetera. There can also be political, secular, or progressive discourses. Also, a single sentence is not a discourse, rather it comprises of complete communication. An example of recently generated discourse is how texting is affecting language (rather simplifying it for easier comprehension), the meta-language thus generated, due to newer linguistic and non-linguistic patterns over the internet, gives way to what we may call the ‘discourses of decay’.
These contexts can be simplified as being a various point of views. Clearly, they are also not complete realities, which implies that more contexts give rise to more discourses. For example, a particular social discourse among Hindus may take red as a holy color, while Catholics may understand it in a negative context as a sign of passion and sin. Mikhail Bakhtin said, while defining a novel as a form of writing, that it is not just a tool of reflection, rather it also shapes the social conditions. A discourse has a similar relationship with the society. For instance, there are various dominant discourses that are naturalized to the extent that people conform to them without much skepticism; like the various tags given to the different kinds of clothing – ‘formals’ and ‘traditionals’. These dominant discourses also give birth to various newer symbols.
A discourse does not exist per say, rather one discourse is related to many others. Julia Kristeva highlights this intertextual nature of ideas. She says that every text is a reflection of many other texts, therefore no text exists in isolation. A similar idea can be applied to discourses because they are influenced by one another at the very basic level. This can be supported by the fact that the body of a text, or a discourse, is structured by rules that are outside the control (or the awareness) of the author and the reader. In other words, the structure of a text, or a discourse for that matter, is outside the control of anybody. Rather it constitutes as well as shapes the subject (the speaker). In this way we are affected by the discourse more than the discourse is shaped by us.
One knows that language provides a system of communication, words, signs, and sounds. In fact, theorists like Saussure first distinguished between written language and speech. Saussure also studied the representative nature of language, and that it is an instrument of control, a tool to dominate. It can be said that the aim of language (culturally speaking) is to engage in a discourse; in other words, all roads lead to a discourse; and this applies to both, written and spoken languages. Consequently, language reflects, prepares, and supports ideologies as well.
Language and discourse
Discourse variation: Whatever the structures we use, and whatever the uses we employ, the end of language is to engage in discourse, in which all aspects of structure combine to produce monologues or dialogues in real situations. All roads lead to discourse. The discourse here is used in its broadest sense, applying to speech as well as writing. Some give the term text a similarly broad application and talk about text linguistics where others talk about discourse analysis. The emphasis is different, but the intent is the same to move away from the analysis of individual words and sentences to the realities of monologue and dialogue in any mode of transmission.
The monologue/dialogue distinction introduces a different kind of classification from what we have seen above. Under the heading of monologue, we include such varieties as lectures, speeches, commentaries, sermons and legal submissions. Under dialogue, we find such varieties as interviews, council meetings, phone-ins, tutorials, and (the norm) everyday conversation. Each raises interesting points of detail, such as the use of comment clauses in conversation. Items such as you know are more subtle than is acknowledged by popular opinion.
What factors help shape a discourse? Most obviously, the number of participants and the relationship that exists between them. This will condition, for example, the formality level of the interaction, as well many specific features, such as terms of address and use of taboo words. Awareness of audience is a specific concern in movements such as the Plain English Campaign and the notion of political correctness. Discourse characteristics will also be shaped by psychological and educational factors. Chief among psychological factors is personality, which includes our individual likes and dislikes. For example, some e-mailers are cavalier in their use of punctuation, capitalization, and spelling; others are strict in following traditional conventions.
Educative factors include the way we have been taught about language, which includes opportunities to be literate, the kind of teaching materials we were given, and the attitudes we assimilated from our teachers, especially the level of their prescriptivism (caring or not caring about such matters as split infinitives or sentence-initial And). An analogy with clothing can help us understand the notion of discourse competence. If we have a range of dress options in our wardrobe, we are in a position to choose appropriate clothing to suit the social circumstances in which we find ourselves. Similarly, if we have a range of linguistic options in our brains, we are in a position to choose the appropriate language (ie languages, dialects, varieties and styles) to suit the social circumstances in which we find ourselves.
New discourses All roads lead to discourse, and a language is always extending its wardrobe of discourses, as can be seen in the evolution of a language in speech, writing, print, telephony, broadcasting and the Internet. Each stage introduces new discourses related to the opportunities introduced by new technology. Novel constraints will produce innovation, as seen vividly in text-messaging and tweeting. Twitter well illustrates how unpredictable and fast-moving discourse variation can be. Thanks to electronic technology, we are living through a period of remarkable discourse innovation, as seen in the range of outputs (web, chat, blog, etc) which have become commonplace since 1990.
Anonymous contributions motivate a different kind of language from signed ones. Single authorship is replaced by multiple authorship in wikis, resulting in an unprecedented level of stylistic heterogeneity. Electronically mediated communication has also motivated new forms of linguistic creativity, such as text-messaging poems and novels. The medium offers a fresh literary experience as a poem or story unfolds on screen. We cannot see the whole text on a mobile phone screen, for example, so poem length is an ongoing discovery and prose reading on iPads and Kindles motivates less skimming.
A comparative discourse analysis is still in its infancy, but it is important to adopt a broad linguistic perspective, studying as many languages as possible. How do languages adapt to electronic communication (eg using similar text-messaging strategies)? Professional translators know that there are many differences in approach and tone when translating texts (eg humor often does not travel). Languages vary in their use of puns, first-person narrative, and so on.
Ultimately, whether our interest is pure or applied, the aim is to master the subject of language. It is Lewis Carroll’s conclusion too when Alice meets Humpty Dumpty in Through the Looking Glass: ‘When I use a word,’ Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, ‘it means just what I choose it to mean – neither more nor less.’ ‘The question is,’ said Alice, ‘whether you can make a word mean so many different things.’ ‘The question is,’ said Humpty Dumpty, ‘which is to be master – that’s all.’
Culture and language
As Raymond Williams observed, the concept of culture is one of the most complicated words in the English language. Culture has been variously described as ‘cultivation’, as a ‘whole way of life’, as ‘power’. That is, the abstraction culture covers a variety of ways of looking at human conduct and can be used for a range of purposes.
Language constitutes material objects and social practices as meaningful and intelligible, it structures which meanings can or cannot be deployed under circumstances by speaking subjects. The relationship between language and culture is a complex one due largely in part to the great difficulty in understanding people’s cognitive processes when they communicate.
Language does not exist apart from culture, that is from the socially inherited assemblage of practices and beliefs that determine the texture of our lives. In a sense, it is a key to the cultural past of a society, a guide to social reality. Edward Sapir in his studies recognized the close relationship between language and culture concluding that it is not possible to understand or appreciate one without the knowledge of another.
The structure of language determines the way in which speakers of that language view the world, the structure does not determine the worldview but is still extremely influential in predisposing speakers of a language towards adopting their worldview. The idea that language, to some extent, determines the way we think about the world around us is known as linguistic determinism, with strong determinism stating that language actually determines thought and weak determinism implying that our thought is merely influenced by our language. While there is no definitive conclusion to exactly how language and culture are related, it is evident through the linguistics choices that people employ that a relationship exists. The culture of people finds reflection in the language they employ because they value certain things and do them in a certain way, they use language in ways that reflect what they value and what they do. Culture has a direct effect on language, in fact, language and culture are closely correlated and interrelated. Language is the symbolic presentation of a nation or a specific community. In other words, language is a symbolic presentation of a culture.
The relationship between culture and discourse through language
The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis, as usually formulated, searches for isomorphism between grammar and culture and views language as either providing the means for thought and perception, or, in its stronger form, conditioning thought, perception, and worldview. In this presentation, we shall consider discourse to be the concrete expression of language-culture relationships. It is discourse that creates, recreates, focuses, modifies, and transmits both culture and language and their intersection, and it is especially in verbally artistic and playful discourse, such as poetry, magic, verbal dueling, and political rhetoric, that the resources provided by grammar, as well as cultural meanings and symbols, are activated to their fullest potential and the essence of language-culture relationships becomes salient.
Like culture, society, and language, different people define discourse in different ways. In my view, discourse is a level or component of language use, related to but distinct from the grammar. It can be oral or written and can be approached in textual or socio-cultural and social-interactional terms. And it can be brief like 0 greeting and thus smaller than 0 single sentence or lengthy 11ke 0 novel or narration of personal experience and thus larger than o sentence and constructed out of sentences or sentence like utterances.
Taking a discourse-centered approach to the language-culture relationship enables us to reformulate the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Instead of asking such Questions as does grammar reflect culture or is culture determined by grammar, we rather start with discourse, which is the nexus, the actual and concrete expression of the language-culture-society relationship. It is discourse which creates, recreates, modifies, and fine-tunes both culture and language and their intersection, and it is especially in verbally artistic discourse that the potentials and resources provided by grammar, as well as cultural meanings and symbols, ore exploited to the fullest and the essence of language-culture relationships, become salient.
Both linguists and anthropologists have traditionally treat discourse as on invisible glass through which the researcher perceives the reality of grammar, social relations, ecological practices, and belief systems. But the gloss itself, discourse and its structure, the actual medium through which knowledge is produced, conceived, transmitted, and acquired, by members of societies and by researchers is given little attention.
Language, culture, society, and the individual, all provide resources in a creative process which is actualized in discourse. In our discourse-centered approach, discourse is the broadest and most comprehensive level of linguistic form, content, and use. This is what is meant by saying that discourse and especially the process of discourse structuring is the locus of the language-culture relationship.
The relationship between gender and discourse, vis-a-vis language
Gender identity is understood as an internalization (through socialization and social learning) of the gendered organization of society. At a discursive level, language about men and women, and the language that men and women speak are both aspects of one process- the social construction of gender. The term discourse is variously used in the language and gender, it may be used in a linguistic sense to refer to language beyond that of words, or it may be used in a post-structural sense to refer to broad systems of gender as a social construction.
In the past few decades, research has moved from language to discourse by considering how language in use reflects and perpetuates gender stereotypes. The point to be highlighted is that sexist language is not just a matter of negative words for women, but of how language in a variety of everyday contexts constructs gender in stereotyped ways that ultimately disadvantage or demean women. An important aspect of the discursive turn is that it moves away from the idea of language as simply a representation, towards the notion of language as a discourse, where discourse is used in the constructionist sense, that is, the categories in language don’t just reflect the world, but constitute it as well. Thus, gender is not just reflected in language but the concept of gender is itself constituted by the language used to refer to it.
As Ann Weatherall states in her seminal book ‘Gender, Language, and Discourse’ and I quote, “Gender can be understood as a discourse because it is an integral part of the social life that is produced through everyday language and talk.” Thus gender is not a stable set of traits residing within an individual psyche and reflected in behavior. Gender has no fixed or stable meaning; rather gender is a social process, it is created and renegotiated in interpersonal relationships and encouraged and maintained through social structures. Language is the most important tool used for communication as it not only reflects the reality of society but also has various functions that of strengthening social existence.
Given such a view, language does mirror the gendered perspectives and can also impact and contribute to changing people’s perception of gender over time. Thus, feminists and sociolinguists, for a very long time, have shown interest in describing the difference in language use between men and women, and studies of the cultural roles ascribed to gender.
Gender is a social construct; gender division is a fundamental aspect of society, as it is deeply embedded in the social organization and taught to individuals from early childhood to adulthood stages. For instance, in some cultures, it sometimes is considered very rude for a woman to enter into a discourse without the invitation from a man. In other cultures, more effort is taken to create gender equality through language and thereby encourage different rules of discourse engagement, such as the integration of gender-neutral pronouns.
Society’s distinction between men and women is reflected in their language. It is realized that there is a specific “language” used by men and women. If a male tends to speak the “language” used by women, he is considered to be crossing the boundary and is oriented by the opposite gender.
The gender difference is not only a reflection of the speech between male and female but also a reflection of their different living styles and attitudes. For example, it is considered that males are more concerned with powers and desire to be leaders, while females are considered to be satisfied with their subordinate status. Another instance of such differentiation in living styles is the assumption that men speak directly but females speak indirectly, implicitly and mildly.
Certain reasons for these differences can be:
1. Men and Women are biologically different and that this difference has consequences for gender differences in language use.
For example, women are predisposed psychologically to be involved with another and to be mutually supportive and noncompetitive. While men are innately predisposed to independence and power.
2. Social Organizations are built upon a hierarchical set of power relations: for instance, men have the ascendancy in such systems, which women usually don’t.
Language behavior reflects the social dominance of men. Like, men take control, specify topics and interpret while women feeling powerless, let them get away with it.
3. Men and women as social beings have learned to act in certain ways: Language behavior is largely a learned behavior. The difference can be a result of the socialization and acculturation patterns and gender assigned activities.

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#065

Process Narrative: Discourse analysis

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Discourse analysis is a qualitative method that was developed and adopted by social constructionist.  The method traces its origin from communication and linguistics. It offers numerous ways of investigating the meanings in natural conversation and cultural contexts. Discourse analysis is increasingly becoming common in both academic and non-academic settings. It can be referred to as “talk about talk” which involves studying a language in its contextual use, which may involves face-to-face talks, images, non-verbal interactions, documents and symbols.  In discourse analysis, the task of the research is to examine micro elements of communication. The task involves transcribing a piece of text or conversation and then deconstructing it to identify specific features such as discourses. Discourse in this context refers to specific themes, especially those that are related to identities.  In discourse analysis, the research must understand the distinguishing features, know when to use specific feature of communication, forms of discourse analysis and analytical tools.
The distinguishing features in discourse analysis are microanalysis, transcription, and how to do thing with words. Microanalysis in discourse analysis involves micro levels of describing language use. Transcription is the transformation of spoken discourse into text form that is total agreeable analysis and obtainable for in research reports. According to Wood and Kroger (2000) transcription is “complicate and time consuming.” Transcription facilitates later identification of linguistic features since it is impossible to keep elements of discourse analysis in mind while listening. Transcription also serves to keep the avail data for reanalysis by others. On the other hand, how to do things in words is concerned with the study of language in use, or what writers and speakers do with words or a language according to Yotsukura (2010), this is “how people convey daily functions such as requests, apologies,  complaints, offers, and the like.” Language is dynamic and the meaning may vary according to the speaker’s status, age, gender and perspectives.
In discourse analysis, the research must know when to uses specific features studying discourse. How people do things with words is used when can be used when the researcher intent to find the meaning of specific words in a particular discourse.  Studying naturally occurring talk is conducted when the research intends to find out how the participants in such talks “understand and respond to one another in their turns at the talk, with a central focus on how sequences of actions are generated.” (Hutchby & Wooffitt, 2008). Conversations that occur naturally unfold in a natural way of the talker as opposed to organized communication in laboratories which are designed experimentally.  Natural talk thus provides researcher with rich information.  Studying the particularities of conversation and speakers is useful when a researcher intend to build collections and distinguish phenomena.  For instance, the research can use the particularities to determine whether, “the speaker is ‘skeptical’, or the recipient is displaying recognition of possible skepticism” (Hutchby & Wooffitt, 2008). The research can identify a phenomenon and locate and analyze it use in varied instances.
Discourse analysis can be conducted in four different ways. It can be conducted through conversation analysis which involves systematic analysis of daily human talks and interaction in daily situations.  Ethno methodology, which is the second approach, involves understanding how people envision, describe and unanimously forge a definition for a particular situation. The third approach, critical discourse analysis, entails a study of the propagation abuse of social power, inequalities and dominance, and how they are replicated and resisted through talk and text in political and social contexts.  The form, narrative analysis, lays emphasis on the techniques through which people crate and use tales to understand their world.
To do these, a research best friend is the analytical tools. These include transcription and microanalysis, semantics, pragmatics, adjacency pairs, accounts, archeology, peplies and responses among other. The research had to use a critical combination of these tools to yield accurate information.
In sum, discourse analysis involves qualitatively studying analyzing and understanding language and their word. The research must study the micro elements of a language to understand it. The researcher must know different forms of discourse analysis and have ability to use discourse analysis analytical tools.
References
Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt, R. (2008). Conversation Analysis. Polity.
Wood, L. A., & Kroger, R. O. (2000). Doing discourse analysis: methods for studying action in talk and text. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Yotsukura, L. (2010). How People Do Things With Words: Discourse and Pragmatics in Japanese and English. Retrieved from http://universityhonors.umd.edu/258X1101.php

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What was the result of the Haitian genocide for the official discourse in the Dominican Republic?

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1. What was the result of the Haitian genocide for the official discourse in the Dominican Republic?
2. In the border today, what are the elements that stand out in terms of the relationships established by and between individuals of both sides of the border?
3. What is the context of the Haitian genocide?

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