The distinction between formative and reflective measures is

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Formative versus reflective measurement models: Two applications of
formative measurement ☆Tim Coltman a,⁎, Timothy M. Devinney b,1, David F. Midgley c,2, Sunil Venaik d,3a Centre for Business Services Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australiab Australian School of Business, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australiac Marketing Area, INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, 77305 Fontainebleau, Franced UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, AustraliaReceived 1 May 2007; received in revised form 1 November 2007; accepted 1 January 2008AbstractThis paper presents a framework that helps researchers to design and validate both formative and reflective measurement models. The
framework draws from the existing literature and includes both theoretical and empirical considerations. Two important examples, one from
international business and one from marketing, illustrate the use of the framework. Both examples concern constructs that are fundamental to
theory-building in these disciplines, and constructs that most scholars measure reflectively. In contrast, applying the framework suggests that a
formative measurement model may be more appropriate. These results reinforce the need for all researchers to justify, both theoretically and
empirically, their choice of measurement model. Use of an incorrect measurement model undermines the content validity of constructs,
misrepresents the structural relationships between them, and ultimately lowers the usefulness of management theories for business researchers and
practitioners. The main contribution of this paper is to question the unthinking assumption of reflective measurement seen in much of the business
literature.
© 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Keywords: Formative; Reflective; International business; Integration-responsiveness; Marketing; Market orientation1. IntroductionManagement scholars often identify structural relationships
among latent, unobserved constructs by statistically relating
covariation between the latent constructs and the observed
variables or indicators of these latent constructs (Borsboom
et al., 2003, 2004). This statistical covariation allows scholars to
argue that if variation in an indicator X is associated with
variation in a latent construct Y, then exogenous interventions
that change Y can be detected in the indicator X. Most scholars
assume that this relationship between construct and indicator is
reflective. In other words, the change in X reflects the change in
the latent construct Y. With reflective (or effect) measurement
models, causality flows from the latent construct to the indicator.
However, not all latent constructs are entities that are
measurable with a battery of positively correlated items (Bollen
and Lennox, 1991; Edwards and Bagozzi, 2000; Fornell, 1982).
A less common, but equally plausible approach is to combine a
number of indicators to form a construct without any
assumptions as to the patterns of intercorrelation between
these items. A formative or causal index results (Blalock, 1964;
Diamantopoulos and Winklhofer, 2001; Edwards and Bagozzi,
2000) where causality flows in the opposite direction, from the
indicator to the construct. Although the reflective view
dominates the psychological and management sciences, the
formative view is common in economics and sociology.Available online at www.sciencedirect.comJournal of Business Research 61 (2008) 1250–1262☆The views here are solely those of the authors, …

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Using Hofstede’s Five Basic Elements of Culture Distinction, write an e-mail message to the Vice…

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Using Hofstede’s Five Basic Elements of Culture Distinction, write an e-mail message to the Vice President (VP) of Production discussing at least three cultural differences that Mark will experience in managing front-line plant workers in Japan in contrast to in the United States.
Assignment 3: Cultural Influence in Business Psychology
Mark Jones, a Production Manager, has been transferred from the manufacturing plant in his hometown of Chicago to his company’s overseas manufacturing plant in Osaka, Japan.
You are the company’s I-O psychologist. Using Hofstede’s Five Basic Elements of Culture Distinction, write an e-mail message to the Vice President (VP) of Production discussing at least three cultural differences that Mark will experience in managing front-line plant workers in Japan in contrast to in the United States. Also address how cultural differences may play a role in individual differences Mark will experience.
Your e-mail message should also include at least three recommendations on how managers can take up overseas tasks with minimum transition problems. State the rationale for your recommendations.
Because the VP of Production is a busy individual, restrict your e-mail message to one to two pages. Type the e-mail message in Microsoft Word, and send it to the M1: Assignment 3 Dropbox by Wednesday, March 29, 2017.
Where appropriate use structured text—bold format, headings, bulleted lists, and graphics—to clarify your meaning and to make your document easier to read. Remember texting language will not be acceptable.
Topic: Using Hofstede’s Five Basic Elements of Culture Distinction, write an e-mail message to the Vice President (VP) of Production discussing at least three cultural differences that Mark will experience in managing front-line plant workers in Japan in contrast to in the United States.

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#075

What is his distinction between procreation and reproduction, as well as that of being begotten…

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As you reflect on Meilaender’s readings, what is his distinction between procreation and reproduction, as well as that of being begotten versus being made? Do you agree with his description? Why or why not?
I NEED YOU TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION, 350 WORDS NEEDED AND 2 REFERENCES PLEASE
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Topic: What is his distinction between procreation and reproduction, as well as that of being begotten versus being made?

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#075

Explain the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring.

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Explain the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring.
Read this article about offshoring risks, challenges, and solutions, and then answer each of the following questions in 6–10 sentences. Provide critical assessment based on the above article, text readings, scholarly research, and personal experience. Cite your resources using APA format.
Explain the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring.
Using examples, describe the various stages in the purchasing process.
What are the most frequently reported problems in outsourcing?
Explain what factors would typically be considered in contingency planning in outsourcing arrangements.
Guideline: Short papers should use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Sources should be cited according to a discipline-appropriate citation method. Page-length requirements 2–4 pages (graduate courses).
Attachments:
week4.pdf
Topic: Explain the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring.

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#075

According to non-essentialists, there is no distinction between positive (“what

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According to non-essentialists, there is no distinction between positive (“what is”) and normative (“what should be.”) All positive statements are concept-dependent, and therefore it is impossible to identify certain relationships as a fact and others as a value judgments. In this context, please read the following and check all normative statements.Question 5 options:Twenty-two states use a lottery to raise state taxes. The deduction for state taxes cost the federal government $100 billion per year. Taxpayers in North Carolina pay state taxes which are above the national average. Congress is considering the president’s tax plan to increase taxes which is a fair plan.
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#065

Research Paper-Explain the distinction between diplomatic immunity and legislative immunity

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Research Paper-Explain the distinction between diplomatic immunity and legislative immunity
According to the text, crime has been part of the human condition since people began to live in groups. Ancient documents indicate that conduct we now call murder, theft, or robbery was identified as criminal by civilizations that existed thousands of years ago.
Criminal laws regulate human conduct and tell people what they can and cannot do and, in some instances, what they must do under certain circumstances. In this assignment, you will explore different types of criminal conduct and the goals of criminal law.
Determine whether or not a conviction is feasible when an alleged perpetrator does not have the required mens rea but has engaged in the actus rea. Provide a rationale to support your position.
Explain the distinction between diplomatic immunity and legislative immunity. Next, support or criticize the premise that diplomatic immunity is vital for Americans abroad.
Argue for or against the theory that the courts should not hold a defendant of questionable competency to the standard sentencing guidelines. Provide a rationale to support your response.
Identify the four (4) goals of criminal law, and discuss the manner in which these four (4) goals effectuate the purpose of protecting the public and preventing the conviction of innocent persons.
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#075

QUESTION: High Distinction 5 Distinction 4 Credit 3.5 Pass 2.5 -3 Needs more work < 2.5 1.     …

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QUESTION: High Distinction 5 Distinction 4 Credit 3.5 Pass 2.5 -3 Needs more work < 2.5 1.      Calculate Payback (3 marks) 2.      Calculate PI (1…
Topic: QUESTION: High Distinction 5 Distinction 4 Credit 3.5 Pass 2.5 -3 Needs more work < 2.5 1.      Calculate

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#075

Original essay on: QUESTION: High Distinction 5 Distinction 4 Credit 3.5 Pass 2.5 -3 Needs more work < 2.5 1.     …

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QUESTION:
High Distinction 5
Distinction 4
Credit 3.5
Pass 2.5 -3
Needs more work < 2.5
1.      Calculate Payback (3 marks)
2.      Calculate PI (1 mark)
3.      Calculate IRR (1 mark)
[Total: 5 marks]
High Distinction 5
Distinction 4
Credit 3.5
Pass 2.5 -3
Needs more work < 2.5
4.      Calculate NPV
[Total: 5 marks]
NPV correct within: +/- 5%
NPV correct within: +/- 10%
NPV correct within:  +/- 20%
NPV correct within: +/- 30%
NPV not correct within +/- 31% +
High Distinction 14 +
Distinction 12 – 14
Credit 10 – 12
Pass 7.5 – 8
Needs more work <7.5
5. How sensitive is the NPV to changes in price (500 – 700 words).  Explain:
•      NPV volatility in relation to change in price
•     Demonstration & explanation of forecasting risk
•      Implications for how project is managed
[Total: 15 marks]
–  Comprehensive use of spreadsheet modelling – Strong, logical analysis; high quality of evidence that supports convincing and coherent case
–  Appropriate use of spreadsheet models
– Coherent, logical analysis; good quality and quantity of evidence that supports persuasive case
–  Some use of spreadsheet models
– Logical analysis; good quality and quantity of evidence that supports a solid case
–  Limited use of spreadsheets
-Mostly logical analysis; adequate quality and quantity of evidence that supports a simplistic case
– Inadequate use of spreadsheets
– Inconsistent, illogical or incoherent argument; poor quality and/or quantity of evidence
High Distinction 14 +
Distinction 12 – 14
Credit 10 – 12
Pass 7.5 – 8
Needs more work <7.5
6.      How sensitive is the NPV to changes in qty sold (500 – 700 words).  Explain:
•      NPV volatility in relation to change in qty sold
•     Demonstration & explanation of forecasting risk
•      Implications for how project is managed
[Total: 15 marks]
High Distinction 9-10
Distinction 8
Credit 7
Pass 5-6
Needs more work <5
In reference to method 1-4:
7.     Explain why project is/is not acceptable, using an analysis of capital budgeting models:
[Total: 10 marks]
Clear and incisive; developed understanding of key capital budgeting decision criteria.
Competent analysis; solid understanding of key capital budgeting decision criteria.
Surface level analysis; some understanding of key capital budgeting decision criteria but with significant gaps.
Very limited analysis; little understanding of key capital budgeting decision criteria.
Insufficient analysis in most areas.
High Distinction 9-10
Distinction 8
Credit 7
Pass 5-6
Needs more work <5
8.     Suppose Booli loses sales on other models because of
the introduction of the new SSHA.  How would this affect your analysis?
[Total: 10 marks]
Original, clear and incisive analysis
Competent analysis of relevant information
Surface level analysis of relevant information
Very limited analysis of relevant information
Insufficient analysis in most areas.
<td…

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#065

Original essay on: High Distinction. To meet this level, you will

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Your assignment will be marked as a whole with recognition being given to demonstration of knowledge, quality thinking, application of s******s and critical thinking.
For some questions you have a chance to demonstrate some creativity, or provide your own examples or give evidence of wider reading or to structure a spreadsheet in an innovative manner. You also need to avoid the snowballing effects of cumulative errors – that is, an error early in a practical question which carries through. Full marks are a possibility for well structured, complete, quality answers.
You will be provided with a mark based on the work submitted and you will also be provided with suggested solutions or guidelines. Feedback will normally consist of the mark, specific comments and guideline solutions.
High Distinction. To meet this level, you will attain a cumulative mark between 85%-100%. A mark in this range indicates that you have met the learning outcomes for this task to an exceptional level, including skilfully applying correct analytical methods and techniques, deconstructing information and reflecting on different accounting and financial management ideas and interpretative techniques applied in management decision making and efficient allocation of business resources, and creating professional reports and spreadsheets that can be used in management decision making.
This mark also indicates your assignment will:
• be professionally presented with correct spelling and grammar
• be the result of your original work
• include complete references and acknowledgment of all sources used according to APA 6th style
• be complete without any omissions
• be correct
• evaluate comprehensively the issues raised in the questions
• provide examples where appropriate, and
• comply with all spreadsheet requirements.
Distinction. To meet this level, you will attain a cumulative mark between 75%-84%. A mark in this range indicates that you have comprehensively met the learning outcomes for this task, including competently applying correct analytical methods and techniques, judging between different accounting and financial management ideas and interpretative techniques in management decision making and efficient allocation of business resources and designing reports and spreadsheets for effective use in management decision making.
This mark also indicates your assignment will:
• be neatly presented with very few spelling and grammatical errors,
• be the result of your original work,
• include references, acknowledging all sources used according to APA 6th style
• be mostly complete
• evaluate many of the issues raised in questions
• provide examples where appropriate, and
• comply with most spreadsheet requirements.
Credit. To meet this level, you will attain a cumulative mark between 65%-74%. A mark in this range indicates that you have thoroughly met the learning outcomes for this task, including differentiating between different analytical methods and techniques to be applied, determining a course of action using accounting and financial management ideas and interpretative techniques for management decision making and efficient allocation of business resources, and assembling reports and spreadsheets for use in management decision making.
This mark also indicates your assignment will:
• be neatly presented with few spelling and grammatical errors
• be the result of your original work
• include references, acknowledging sources used according to APA 6th style
• be mostly complete
• be mostly correct with only a few errors
• evaluate many of the issues raised in questions
• provide some examples where appropriate, and
• comply with most spreadsheet requirements.************Pass************this level, you will attain a cumulative mark between 50%-64%.
A mark in this range indicates that you have met the learning outcomes for this task to a basic level, including responding to questions with limited options for applying analytical methods and techniques, selecting accounting and financial management ideas and interpretative techniques for management decision making and efficient allocation of business resources, and generating basic reports and spreadsheets that could be used for management decision making.
This mark also indicates your assignment will:
• be neatly presented,
• be the result of your original work,
• include some references and acknowledge sources used according to APA 6th style,
• be mostly complete without too many omissions,
• be mostly correct with some errors
• evaluate some of the issues raised in questions
• provide some examples where appropriate, and
• comply with most spreadsheet requirements
Your assignment consists of different question styles including …

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#065