Topic 1:Technologies plays a key role in present and future developing websites

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Topic 1:Technologies plays a key role in present and future developing websites and mobile application, and mostly web drafting and advertisement. Network  provides various shared data from different objects and distributed on applications working on various nodes. Now a days internet expands, every application creates typical things make easy like storage, voice over and media streaming. To reach up to the mark, network application should be developed very effectively and fast processing.Main aim of network application is transferring data, media, voice and video  over a network. The usage of application  depends on design of application. Recently enterprise IT  have highly influenced by user utilization. However every IT sector going furthur looking for maintaining their  user with successful enterprises using  latest techniques in computer networking. Business analytics should open their eyes and get closer and start emerging networking tools in their application. Now a days smart phones  application are used huge in market compaired to computer. In mobiles application are 1000 times faster than the other gadgets, because cellular networks are improving the power of internet with usage of vast data on the mobiles.Mostly of the IT world creating mobile application strongly with responsive design. Mainly young generation using website, publicity on web and managing storage everything done by smart phones.This everything done by network emerging in application, without networking  their is no data transferring and  gaining for better decisions. Infact big data makes IT industries more reliable and easy way to solve the problems.This set of data stored in cloud  are utilized by all over the globe based on their access. Everyone know about the big data but its works on networking, without  emerging network  we can not access the cloud from other sources.However in every locality gives access of internet to their homes and companies has high speed data like 802.11 wireless networking. This wifi protocols increase the growth in marketplace and satisfy the user without any delays. One thing without networking no human sustain on globe.Topic 2:With every single one of the alterations in IT structure with the move of virtualization and cloud, systems are under huge weight. The structures association industry is developing quickly to keep up and concentrating more on programming than standard apparatus speeds and stimulates. For structures association authorities, this recommends a lot of new decisions and changes in the way they approach their work. Structure Computing beginning late met with Ethan Banks, CCIE #20655 and prime supporter of Packet Pushers, to get understanding into entering rising cases in systems association.One area that – not so much in light of the cloud and virtualization – has been a condition of joining is the focalizing of systems association and utmost. While the colossal names – including Dell, IBM, Cisco, EMC, and HP – have all been in a general sense required, there has been a lot of moving past these officeholders.The ascending of the compact Web proposes fewer and fewer individuals are getting to your corporate site from a work zone. That convenientce besides proposes you have to design for an expansive collection of cell phones and tablets, each requiring its own application and web content association framework. A dominating game-plan is one format that changes with the contraption on which it is being seen: Responsive Web Design. RWD should bend up the new three-letter acronym that is a touch of each corporate Web change affiliation.Various Data wants needs depend upon an uneven strategy. Clients enable relationship to secretively collect data on their Web rehearses because of free association and applications on Google, Bing, Facebook, and others. The fantasy of client secret is multiplied by pages flooding with security picks that no adjusted individual can read or get it. Thus, clients get focused on plugs and a developing consideration that the “security forever get to” is a Faustian game plan, as their characters get exhausted in the motorized world.Huge data, circulated registering, and corporate conveyability all require specific extents of limits that most affiliations don’t have. The measures of positions required are anticipated to be huge. Gartner operators assessed that progress and examination of colossal datasets will set the phase for 4.4 million IT occupations general foreseen that would help huge information by 2015. That sounds like hoisting news, particularly as individuals outside IT will be required to empower the new rich information to condition. In the U.S., the gigantic data progression will make 1.9 million IT occupations by 2015, as per Gartner head of research Peter Sondergaard.

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#065

Planning for the Future

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Hopes and Dreams A. Even if you have not done much research on the topic what are your hopes and dreams for your employment future? “What do you want to be when you grow up? ” -When I grow up I want to be an ultrasound technician. I’m very interested in the female body and reproductive system. I also love babies so it was keep me interested in my studies. I want to be able to help women out with the beautiful experience of birth and child development. B. What do you want your life to look like in 10 years? In 10 years I want to be a successful ultrasound technician. I will also make my own schedule so I can spend time with my amazing future family. I want to be living by the beach with my husband, Jason Zeigler, and my two children, Carson and Brayden. I will be in the upper-class and have a river house. We will have two dogs, Jackson and Parker. C. What do you want your life look like in 5 years? -In 5 years I will be in college. Hopefully University of Riverside after I get my general education done at Chaffey. I will also be moved in and engaged to Jason Zeigler.
That will be the biggest turning point of my life in my own personal opinion mainly because I will be focusing on my major and my career, which will in turn determine the rest of my life. Either successful or a failure. D. What are you doing now that will affect the rest of your life? -Things that I am doing now that will affect the rest of my life is graduating high school, going to college, and working and becoming independent. Graduating is a huge step in life. It’s the start of the rest of our lives. There’s no more messing around anymore. We are growing up and now we must be independent and do things on our own.
Going to college is another big step in what is going to affect the rest of my life. There is no more free education. Especially when your parents are making you pay for it by yourself like I am. At least I have a very good, well-paying job, In N Out. In N Out has really taught me how to be responsible with my money. It has made me realize how fast your money can disappear. It has also broken me out of my shell. In N Out has taught me how to deal with angry customers and how to talk to anyone. These are some very important traits I feel that I will need for the rest of my life. Step 2: Evaluate your Current Job
A. What are the tasks that you are performing in your current job that will transfer to future jobs and your career? * The tasks that I am performing in my current job that will help me transfer to future jobs and my career is dealing with agitated people, working at a fast pace, being able to talk to anyone, and being able to do what people tell me quickly and efficiently. Dealing with angry and/or agitated customers is probably the hardest part of the job. Not only is it awkward, but it is also very agitating for you. I normally want to just scream in their face that it’s not my fault but I always keep my cool.
Working at a fast pace without stressing is also a very good skill to have. You have to be able to work very fast at In N Out. We are constantly busy and having to please hundreds of customers a day. B. What are the possibilities for advancement at this current job, and what are the skills you could still learn at this job? * In N Out runs off of a level system. A level 1 cleans the dining room. A level 2 takes orders and can work the back pay window. A level 3 can take orders outside with something we call a hand held, and can also hand out food for the drive through. A level 4 works fries.
A level 5 dresses, puts the condiments, on the burger. A level 6 actually cooks the burgers. Lastly, a level 7 is a manager’s assistant. They help run the shift when the manager isn’t around. Then after all those are the managers. Each separate store has 4 different mangers. They move up as well. They all start out as 4th managers and then move up to a 1st manager, which is a “store manager”. After that they can move up to district managers and then a regional manager. I am currently a level 3 but I am hopefully getting my level 4 soon. I’ve been working and learning fries.
In N Out is definitely my fall back if the ultrasound technician fails. Step 3: Interests A. What do you like to do? * I love to hang out with friends, my boyfriend, go out to eat, and sleep. I can hang out with my friend and Jason for days. Probably like every other teenager but that’s when I have the most fun. Going out to eat is my favorite thing to do. I don’t really care if it’s bad for you. I love food. Sleeping is what I do in my free time. I am constantly tired so I love sleep when I actually have the time to do so. B. What is the best experience you have ever had? The best experience I’ve ever had was probably my senior prom. Basically it was the best night of my life. It was amazing. From getting ready, to pictures, to dinner, to the bus, to the dance, to the bus again, and then Kyle Wades spa. I got to get ready with my best friends and my boyfriend’s mom paid for me to get my makeup done. I love that woman. The pictures were great with my boyfriend and best friends. We got some really cute ones. Dinner was delicious at chilis. The bus was the best part in addition to the actual dance. We had a stripper pole and all the guys got on it. This is the irst dance I’ve been to that the teachers didn’t care how we danced. By the time we got off the dance floor everyone was dripping sweat. My legs were sore for 3 days after. After that we hopped back on the bus, made a quick stop to In N Out and then chilled in Kyle’s spa. Jason and I had to sleep in my truck that night but we woke up early and went to Denny’s for breakfast. C. What makes you the happiest? * My boyfriend and friends are definitely my top priority at this point. They have made me who I am today. D. What makes you feel most satisfied? * Making everyone around me happy and accomplishing a new goal.
E. When have you felt the most rewarded? * When I reached my level 3 and got my raise because I earned it all on my own with no one else’s help. Step 4: Aptitudes A. What are you good at? * I am very good at following orders. When someone tells me to do something I will get it done right away and get it done very well. B. 1. After the first set of questions, what are the top 10 careers that come up? * 1. Choreographer / Dance Instructor * 2. Correctional Officer * 3. Director of Photography * 4. Director * 5. Athletic Trainer * 6. Security Guard * 7. Vending Machine Servicer * 8. Kinesiologist * 9. Auto Detailer 10. Stock Clerk 2. How do you feel about these careers? I don’t this a lot of these careers suit me at all. 3. What are the results now, how did they change? 1. Bailiff 2. Artist 3. Special Effects Technician 4. Computer Network Specialist 5. Stuntperson 6. Director of Photography 7. Cardiologist 8. Doctor 9. Anesthesiologist 10. Nurse Practitioner 4. Did your top 3 interests appear? What are they and why do they interest you? My top 3 interest groups did not appear at all. Ultrasound technician, Crime Scene investigator, or working in advertisement. They all seem like jobs you can’t get bored of.

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#065

Dissertation Writers: A detailed plan for refining areas for  improvement in future assignments

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Dissertation Writers: A detailed plan for refining areas for  improvement in future assignments
In this cumulative assignment, you will reflect on how your writing skills have improved throughout this course, as well as where you still have room for growth, and create a plan of action for the remainder of your graduate school experience.
Review the required readings for this week, along with the feedback you received on your Weeks 1, 2, & 4 Individual assignments.
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word analysis of your graduate-level writing skills. Include the following:
A summary of the feedback that      you received on your Weeks 1, 2, & 4 Individual assignments
An analysis of your individual      strengths and weaknesses in writing
A detailed plan for refining areas for  improvement in future assignments
Format your paper according to appropriate course-level APA guidelines.
**Attached you will find feedback from weeks 1,2 & 4 and the readings**
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#075

The future strategic direction for sport and recreation in Darebin

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Table of contents1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………3
2. SPORTS VENUE CLASSIFICATION…………………………………………..4
3. SPORTS VENUE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE………………………..53.1 Priority for support infrastructure works………………………………………………………5
3.2 Environmentally Sustainable Design………………………………………………..10
3.3 Responsibility for provision of sports venue support infrastructure……………104. SPORTING PAVILIONS…………………………………………………………..114.1 Priority for sporting pavilion works…………………………………………………………….114.1.1 Scoring of pavilion criteria ……………………………………………………………12
4.1.1.1 Functionality Score ………………………………………………………………………..12
4.1.1.2 Condition Rating ……………………………………………………………………………12
4.1.1.3 Existing Usage ………………………………………………………………………………12
4.1.1.4 Social Inclusion …………………………………………………………………………….13
4.1.1.5 Potential Development & multi use…………………………………………………..13
4.1.1.6 Weighting criteria …………………………………………………………………………..144.2 Amenity standards and responsibility for provision for future pavilion
works……………………………………………………………………………………………11
54.2.1 Neighbourhood Level Pavilions……………………………………………………………..15
4.2.2 Local Level Pavilions…………………………&#823…

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#065

Present Status and Future Refinements

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Present Status and Fut ure Refinement s Jacqueline Fawcett, Ph. D. , F. A. A. N. Abstract The central concepts and themes of t he discipline of nursing are identified and formalized as nursing’s metaparadigm. Examples illustrate the direction provided by the metaparadigm for theory development. Refinements of the metaparadigm through conceptual models and programs of nursing research are proposed. T he discipline of nursing will advance only through continuous and systematic development and testing of nursing knowledge.
Several recent reviews of the status of nursing theory development indicate that nursing has n o established tradition of scholarship. Reviewers have pointed out that most work appears unfocused and uncoordinated, as each scholar moves quickly from one topic to another and as few scholars combine their efforts in circumscribed areas (Chinn, 1983; Feldman, 1980; Hardy, 1983; Roy, 1983; Walker, 1983). Broad areas for theory development’ are, however, beginning to be recognized. Analysis of past and present writings of nurse scholars indicates that theoretic and empirical work has always centered on just a few global oncepts and has always dealt with certain general themes. This paper identifies these central concepts and themes and formalizes them as nursing’s metaparadigm. Examples are given to illustrate the direction provided by the metaparadigm for theory development. The paper continues with a discussion o f refinements of t he metaparadigm needed at the levels of jacqueline Fawcett, Ph. D. , F. A. A. N. , i s Associate Professor, and Section Chairperson, Science and Role Development, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Page 84 disciplinary matrices and exemplars nd concludes with proposals for future work needed to advance to the discipline of nursing. Present Status of the Metaparadigm of Nursing The metaparadigrn of any discipline i s a statement or group of statements identifying its relevant phenomena. These statements spell out the phenomena of interest in a most global manner. No attempt i s made to be specific or concrete at the metaparadigm level. Eckberg & Hill (1979) explained that the metaparadigm “acts as an encapsulating unit, or framework, within which the more restricted . . . structures develop” (p. 927). The Central Concepts of Nursing
Evidence supporting the existence of a metaparadigm of nursing i s accumulating. A review of the literature on theory development in nursing reveals a consensus about the central concepts of the discipline-person, environment, health, and nursing (Fawcett, 1983; Flaskerud & Halloran, 1980). This consensus i s documented by the following statements: O ne may. . . demarcate nursing in terms of four subsets: 1 ) persons providing care, 2) persons with health problems receiving care, 3) the environment in which care i s given, and 4 ) an end-state, well-being. (Walker, 1971, p. 429) The major concepts identified (from an nalysis of the components, themes, topics, and threads of the conceptual frameworks of 50 baccalaureate nursing programs) were Man, Society, Health, and Nursing. (Yura &Torres, 1975, p. 22) The units person, environment, health, and nursing specify the phenomena of interest to nursing science. (Fawcett, 1978, p. 25) Nursing studies the wholeness or health of humans, recognizing that humans are in continuous interaction with their environments. (Donaldson & Crowley, 1978, p. 119) Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship Nursing’s focus i s persons, their environments, their health and nursing itself. Bush, 1979, p. 20) Nursing elements are nursing acts, the p atient, and health. (Stevens, 1979, p. l l ) The foci of nursing are the individual in relation to health, the environment, and the change process, whether it be maturation, adaptation, or coping. (Barnard, 1980, p. 208) Nursing i s defined as the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. (American Nurses‘ Association, 1980, p. 9 ) The four conceptual areas of nursing are: the person receiving nursing; the environment within which the person exists; the health-illness continuum within which the erson falls at the time of the interaction with the nurse; and finally, nursing actions themselves. (Flaskerud, cited in Brink, 1980, p. 665) The domain of nursing has always included the nurse, the patient, the situation in which they find themselves, and the purpose of their being together, or the health of the patient. In more formalized terms, . . . the major components of the nursing [metalparadigm are nursing (as an action), client (human being), environment (of the client and of the nurse-client), and health. (Newman, 1983, p. 388) There i s general agreement that the central oncepts of the discipline of nursing are the nature of nursing, the individual who received nursing care, society-environment, and health. (Chinn, 1983, p. 396) These statements indicate that there i s considerable agreement among scholars as t o the concepts central to the discipline of nursing. In fact, a review of the literature revealed no contradictory statements. RecurringThemes The relationships between and among the concepts-person, environment, health, nursing-are elaborated in recurring themes found in works of nurse scholars since Nightingale (1859). These themes are listed in Table 1.
Summer, 1984, Volumo XVI, blo. 3 Metaparadigm of Nursing TABLE 1 THEMES OF THE YETAPARAWW OF NURSING 1. The principles and laws that govern the life-process, well-being. and optimum function of human beings, sick or well. 2. The patterning of human behavior in interaction with the environment in normal life events and critical life situations. 3. The process by which positive changes in health status are elfected. (Donaldson& Crowley, 1978, p. 113; Gortner, 1980, p. 180) The four central concepts and three recurring themes identify the phenomena central to the discipline of nursing in an abstract, global manner.
They represent the metaparadigm. As such, they have provided some direction for nursing theory development. As Newman (1983) explained: It i s within the context of these four major components and their interrelationships that theory development in nursing has proceeded. Theoretical differences relate to the emphasis placed on one or more of the components and to the way in which their relationships are viewed. (p. 388) The relationship between the concepts “person” and “health” i s considered in the first theme. Theories addressing this theme describe, explain, or predict individuals‘ behavior during eriods of wellness and illness. Newman’s (1979) theory of health i s one example. This theory includes the concepts of movement, time, space, and consciousness. Newman proposes that “the expansion of consciousness i s what life, and therefore health, i s a ll about” (p. 66). Another example i s Orem’s (1980) theory of self-care, which maintains that “self-care and care of dependent family members are learned behaviors that purposely regulate human structural integrity, functioning, and human development” (p. 28). S till another example i s Orern’s theory of self-care deficits.
This theory maintains that individuals “are subject t o healthrelated or health-derived limitations that render them incapable of continuous selftare or dependent care or that result in ineffective or incomplete care” (p. 2 7). The relationships among the concepts ”person,“ ”environment,” and “health” are considered in the second theme. Theories addressing this theme Summer, 1B84, Volume XVI, No. 3 describe, explain, or predict individuals’ behavioral patterns as they are influenced by environmental factors during periods of wellness and illness. Such theories place the individuals ithin the context of their surrounding environment rather than considering them in isolation, as in the first theme. Roy and Roberts’ (1981) theory of the person as an adaptive system i s an example. This theory proposes that the person i s a system that adapts to a constantly changing environment. Adaptation i s accomplished through the action of coping mechanisms called the “regulator” and the “cognator. ” The relationships among the “person,’’ “health,” and “nursing” are considered in the third theme. Environment may also be taken into account here. This heme i s addressed by theories about nursing practice. These theories describe or explain nursing processes or predict the effects of nursing actions. King‘s (1981) theory of goal attainment i s one example. King explains: that a paradigm, or disciplinary matrix, i s more restrictive than a metaparadigm, and that i t “represents the shared commitments of any disciplinary community, including symbolic generalizations, beliefs, values, and a host of other elements” (p. 926). The authors went on to say, A disciplinary matrix may be seen as the special subculture of a community. It does ot refer to the beliefs of an entire discipline (e. g. biology), but more correctly t o those beliefs of a specialized community (e. g. phage workers in biology). (p. 926) Identification of the metaparadigm i s an important step i n the evolution of a scholarly tradition for nursing. The n e x t step i s r efinement o f t h e metaparadigm concepts and themes, which occurs at the level of the paradigm or disciplinary matrix, rather than at that of the metaparadigm. The Disciplinary Matrix Eckberg and Hill (1979) explained Most disciplines have more than one disciplinary matrix.
Each one represents a distinctive frame of reference within which the metaparadigm phenomena are viewed. Furthermore, each disciplinary matrix reflects a particular research tradition by identifying the phenomena that are within its domain of inquiry, the methods that are to be used to investigate these phenomena, how theories about these phenomena are to be tested, and how d ata are to be collected (Laudan, 1981, p. 151). More specifically, the research tradition of each disciplinary matrix includes six rules that encompass all phases of an investigation. The first rule identifies the precise nature f the problem to be studied, the purposes to be fulfilled by the investigation, or both. The second rule identifies the phenomena that are to be studied. The third rule identifies the research techniques that are to be employed and the research tools that are to be used. The fourth rule identifies the settings in which data are to be gathered and the subjects who are to provide the data. The fifth rule identifies the methods to be employed in reducing and analyzing the data. The sixth rule identifies the nature of contributions that the research will make to the advancement of knowledge. (Schlotfeldt, 1975, p. ) In nursing, disciplinary matrices are most clearly exemplified by such conceptual models as Johnson‘s (1980) Behavioral System Model, King’s (1981) Open Systems Model, Levine’s (1973) Conservation Model, Neuman’s (1982) Systems Model, Orem’s (1980) Self-care Model, Rogers’ (1980) Life Process Model, and Roy’s (1984) Adaptation Model. Each Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship Page 85 . . . nurse and client interactions are characterized by verbal and nonverbal communication, in which information i s exchanged and interpreted; by transactions, in which values, needs, and wants of each ember of the dyad are shared; by perceptions of nurse and client and the situation; by self in role of client and self in role of nurse; and by stressors influencing each person and the situation in time and space. – (p. 144) Orem’s ( 1 980) theory of nursing systems is another example. This theory maintains that ”nursing systems are formed when nurses use their abilities to prescribe, design, and provide nursing for legitimate patients (as individuals or groups) by performing discrete actions and systems of actions” (p. 29). Refinement of the Metaparadigm Metaparadigm of Nursing f these nursing models puts forth a distinctive frame of reference within which the metaparadigm phenomena are viewed. Each provides needed refinement of the metaparadigm by serving as a focus-”ruling some things in as relevent, and ruling others out due to their lesser importance” (Williams, 1979, p. 96). Conceptual models of nursing are beginning to make major contributions to the development of nursing theory. Theories derived directly from King’s model and from Orem’s model were identified earlier. A considerable amount of empirical work designed to test unique nursing theories as well as heories borrowed from other disciplines i s n ow being guided by nursing models. Some of the studies are listed in Table 2. TABLE 2 Examples of Research Derived From Conceptual Models of Nursing Oorothy Johnson’s BehavioralSystem Model -An instrument for theory and research development using the behavioral systems model for nursing: The cancer patient. Part I (Derdiarian, 1983). -An instrument for theory and research development using the behavioral systems model for nursing: The cancer patient. Part II (Derdiarian & Forsythe, 1983). -Achievement behavior in chronically ill children (Holaday, 1 974) Maternal response to their chronically ill infants’ attachment behavior of crying (Holaday, 1981) -Maternal conceptual set development: Identifyingpatterns of maternal response to chronically ill infant crying (Holaday, 1 982) -Development of a research tool: Patient indicators of nursing care (Majesky, Brester, & Nishio, 1 978) Myra Levine’s Conservation Model -Effects of lifting techniques on energy expenditure: A preliminary investigation (Geden, 1 982) – A comparision of two bearing-downtechniques during the second stage of labor (Yeates & Roberts, 1984) Betty Neuman’s Systems Model Effects of information on postsurgical coping (Ziemer. 1 983) Dorothea Orem’s Self-care Model -Application of Orem’s theoretical constructs to selfcare medication behaviors in the elderly (Harper, 1984) -Development of an instrument to measure exercise of self-care agency (Kearney & Fleischer, 1 979) Martha Roger’s Life Process Model -The relationship between identification and patterns of change in spouses’ body images during and after pregnancy (Fawcett, 1977) -Patients’ perceptions of time: Current research (Fitzpatrick, 1 980) -Reciprocy and helicy used t o relate mEGF and wound healing (Gill & Atwood, 1 981) Therapeutic touch as energy exchange: Testing the theory (Ouinn, 1 984) Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model -Needs of cesarean birth parents (Fawcett, 1981) -An exploratory study of antenatal preparation for ce- Page 86 sarean birth (Fawcett & Burritt, in press) -Clinical tool development for adult chemotherapy patients: Process and content (Lewis, Firsich. & Parsell, 1 979) -Content analysis of interviews using a nursing model: A look at parents adapting to the impact of childhood cancer (Smith, Garvis, & Martinson, 1 983) Despite the contributions already made by nursing models to theory development, much more work i s needed.
In particular, rules addressing methodology and instrumentation must be specified. Moreover, programs of research emanating from each model must be conducted to refute or validate nursing theories. Programmatic research probably i s carried out most expediently by communities of scientists. Hardy (1983) explained that each community of scientists i s . . . a g roup of persons w h o are aware of their uniqueness and the separate identity of their group. The have a special coherence which separates them from neighboring groups, and this special bond means they have a shared set of values and a common commitment which operates as hey work together t o achieve a common goal. Coordination of their activities may include interaction among the coordination of institutions, organizations, groups, and individuals. Such coordinated groups hold a common perspective, common values and common bonds, a nd they have common sets of activities and functions which they carry out to achieve a common outcome. (p. 430) Each community of scientists, then, represents a distinctive subculture, or disciplinary matrix, of the parent discipline. It can be argued that communities of scientists may be formed outside the organizing framework of nursing models.
However, it also can be argued that conceptual models of nursing, like the disciplinary matrices of other disciplines, are the most logical nuclei for communities of scientists. This argument i s supported by three facts. First, the curricula of most schools of nursing now are based on conceptual models. Second, most graduate programs and many undergraduate programs offer courses dealing with the content and uses of nursing models. And third, clinical agencies are beginning to organize the delivery of nursing care according to the tenets of conceptual ‘models. image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship Collectively, these facts mean that cademicians, students, clinicians, and administrators are thinking about nursing theory, nursing research, and nursing practice within the context of explicit conceptual models. It i s probable, then, that eventually the development of a ll nursing theory will be directed by nursing models. It may even by possible to categorize seemingly isolated past and current work according to conceptual models. This should provide more organization for extant nursing knowledge and should identify gaps and needed areas of inquiry more readily than is possible now. Moreover, such an endeavor should identify members of different ommunities of scientists to each other as w ell as t o the larger scientific community. Exemplars S till further refinement of the metaparadigm i s needed a t the most restrictive level-that of the exemplar. Eckberg and Hill (1979) identified the function of an exemplar as permitting “a way of seeing one’s subject matter on a concrete level, thereby allowing puzzle solving to take place” (p. 927). They went on to explain: For a discipline to b e a science it must engage i n puzzle-solving activity; but puzzle solving can only be carried out if a community shares concrete puzzle solutions, or exemplars.
It i s t he exemplar that i s i mportant, not merely the disciplinary matrix, and certainly not merely the general presuppositions of t he community [i. e. , the metaparadigm]. The latter may be important, but they do n ot direct ongoing, dayto-day research. (p. 927) There i s some evidence of exemplars in nursing. This includes but is not limited to Fitzpatrick’s (1980) programmatic research on time perception; studies o effects of information f about a threatening procedure on a patient’s responses to the procedure (e. g. , Hartfied, Cason, & Cason, 1982; Johnson, Fuller, Endress, & Rice, 1978; Ziemer, 19831, and investigations of actors contributing to the outcomes of social support (Barnard, Brandt, Raff, & Carroll, 1984 in press). These researchers are beginning to solve some of the major puzzles of nursing. However, more work i s needed to identify other puzzles and to develop methods for their solutions. Summer, 1984, Volume XVI, No. 3 Metaparadigm of Nursing Conclusion It is time to formally accept the central concepts and themes of nursing as the metaparadigm of the discipline. It i s also time to direct efforts toward furf ther refinement o this metaparadigm by developing specific rules for the empirical work needed to generate nd test nursing theories within the context of conceptual ‘models. The metaparadigm must be refined still further through the developing of new puzzle-solving activities that will provide answers to the most pressing problems encountered by nurse clinicians, educators, and ddministrators. Any one of these activities would in itself make a significant contribution to the discipline; a ll three could quite possibly be the major accomplishments of the decade. ‘As used here, theory development reft. r to generation a nd testing of theory. and encornpasiei ”ivory tower” theorizing as well as empirical rewarch.
References American Nurses’ As5ocialion. Nursing: A social policy statement. Kansas City, Missouri: ANA, 1980. Barnard, K. E. Knowledge for practice: Direction5 for the future. Nursing Research, 1980. 29, 208-21 2. Barnard, K . E. , Brandt, P. , Raff. 8.. & Carroll, P. (Ed,. ). Social support and families of vulnerable infants. New York: March of Dimes, 1984. Brink, P. 1. Editorial. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 1980, 2, 665-666. Buih, H . A. Models for nursing. Advances i n Nursing Science, 1979, l ( 2 ) . 13-21. Chinn, P. L. Nursing theory development: Where we have been and where we are going.
In N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time to speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Donaldson, S. K. , & Crowley, D. M . The discipline of nursing. Nursing Outlook, 1978, 26, 113-120. Eckberg, D. L .. & Hill, L. , Jr. The paradigm concept and sociology: A critical review. American Sociological Review, 1979, 44,925-937. Fawcett, 1. The “what” of theory development. In Theory developmenk What, why, how? (pp. 17-33). New York: National League for Nursing, 1978. Fawcett, 1. (1983). Hallmarks of success in nursing theory development. In P. L. Chinn, (Ed. ), Advances i n nursing theory development (pp. -17). Rockville, Maryland: Aspen. Feldrnan, H. R. Nursing research in the 1980s: Issues and implications. Advances in N ursing Science, 1980, 3(1);85-92. Fitzpatrick, 1. J . Patients perceptions of time: Current research. International Nursing Review, 1980, 27, 148-153, 160. Flaskerud. 1. H. , & Halloran, E. J. Areas of agreement in nursing theory development. Advances in Nursing Science, 1980, 3(1), 1-7. Hardy. M. Metaparadigrnsand theory development. In N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A t ime t o speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Hartfield. M. k Cason, C. L. , & Cason, C. J . Effects of , information about a threatening procedure on patients‘ expectations and emotional distress. Nursing Research, 1 982,31,202-206. lohnson, D. E . The behavioral system model for nursing. In J . P. Riehl & C. Roy, (Eds. ), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed. ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980. Johnson. 1 . E. , Fuller, S . 5.. Endress, M. P . , & Rice, V S. . Altering patients’ responses to surgery: An extension and replication. Research in Nursing and Health, 1978, 1 , 111-121. King. I. M. A theory for nursing: Systems, concepts, process. New York: Wiley, 1981. Neurnan, B .
The Neuman systems model: Application t o nursing education and practice. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1982. Newrnan, M. A. Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1979. Newrnan, M . A. The continuing revolution: A history of nursing science. I n N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time t o speak. New York: McGrawHill, 1983. Nightingale, F. Notes on nursing: What it is, a nd what it i s not. London: Harrison, 1859. (Reprinted by L i p pincott, 1946) Orem, D. E. Nursing: Concepts of practice (2nd ed. ). New York: McCraw-Hill, 1980. Rogers, M. E . A n introduction to t he theoretical basisk f nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1970. Roy, C. I ntroduction to nursing: An adaptation model. (2nd Ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, 1984. Roy, C. Theory development in nursing: Proposal for direction. In N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time t o speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Roy, C. , & Roberts, S . L . Theory construction i n nursing: An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1981. Schlotfeldt, R. M. The needs for a conceptual framework, In P . J. Verhonick (Ed. ), Nursing research I. Boston: Little, Brown. 1975. Stevens, 8. J. N ursing theory.
Analysis, application, evaluation. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979. Walker, L. 0. Toward a clearer understanding of the concept of nursing theory. Nursing Research, 1971, 20, 428-435. Walker, L. 0. Theory and research in the development of nursing as a discipline: Retrospect and prospect. In N . L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time to speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Williams, C. A. The nature and development of conceptual frameworks. In F. S . Downs & I . W . Fleming, (Eds. ) Issues in nursing research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1979. Ziemer, M. M. Providing patients with information rior t o surgery and the reported frequency of coping behaviors and development of symptoms foll owing surgery. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1982. A Response to D r. J . Fawcett’s Paper: “The Metaparadigm of Nursing: Present Status and Fut ure Refinement s” June N. Brodie, R. N. , Ph. D. D r. Fawcett’s formulation of a metaparadigm for nursing represents a commendable effort to consolidate competing nursing theories and encompasses enormous potential for the advancement of nursing knowledge, research, and practice meriting serious consideration by nursing une N . Brodie, R. N. , Ph. D . i s Associate Professor of Nursing Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. Summer, 1984, Volume XVI, No. 3 scholars. This response focuses on how she accomplished this task (what she did and how she did it as well as what she didn’t do and what needs to be done). Essentially Dr. Fawcett’s metaparadigm can be viewed as an evolution of a nursing metaparadigm and an organization of the growth of nursing knowledge rather than as a completed and finalized product. To be more explicit, the basis of the paper exhibits the spirit of Darwinian Evolution and ould be treated as a manifestation of Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship a transitional phase i n the competition for the survival of the fittest (theory). The metaparadigm represents a serious and scholarly attempt to negotiate entry into a different level of the theoretical arena of nursing knowledge. This task was accomplished by examining the concepts derived from the phenomena of the discipline and converging these concepts into a context pertinent to the domain of nursing by providing a structure (a metaparadigm) that has the potential of consolidating disparate nursing theories into Page 87

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Writing Service-Describe how this plan sets ALL of your students up for mastering the objective and a future summative assessment.

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Writing Service-Describe how this plan sets ALL of your students up for mastering the objective and a future summative assessment.
Following the instructional plan and within the same document, provide a two-page synopsis of your plan, in essay format.
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Describe how this plan sets ALL of your students up for mastering the objective and a future summative assessment.
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Project Management and Innovation Past and Future

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It is unsurprising that development of innovation is often run as a project. Yet, theoretically both project management and innovation studies have evolved over time as distinctively separate disciplines. In this paper we make an attempt to conceptualize the innovation project management and past as well as future of same. By doing so, we contribute to the nascent academic debate on the interplay between innovation and project management.
This paper is concerned with three topics and the interplay between them, namely “Innovation”, “Research and Development (R&D)” and “Project Management”. The interest in these topics has exploded recently as they emerged both on the policy agenda and in the corporate strategies. The contribution of technological innovation to national economic growth has been well established in the economic literature. In the last couple of decades, new technologies, new industries, and new business models have powered impressive gains in productivity and GDP growth.
While originally there was a tendency to equate R&D and innovation, contemporary understanding of innovation is much broader than purely R&D. R&D is one component of innovation activities and knowledge creation among others. Innovation emerges as a pervasive and complex force, not only in the high-tech sectors in advanced economies, but also as a phenomenon existing in low-tech industry of developing, or catching-up economies. Still, the link between R&D and innovation is often at the core of the innovation studies.
Presently, we are witnessing “projectification” of the world as a growing number of specialists organise their work in projects rather than on on-going functional basis. The connection between R&D and project management has a long history. Most tools of project management have been developed from the management of R&D, often with military purposes (Lorell, 1995). The most vivid example of managing R&D projects in the public sector is the PRINCE2 method (UK OGC, 2005).
Due to the above mentioned difference between R&D and innovation, R&D projects should be distinguished from innovation projects too. Innovation is a non-linear process, not necessarily technology-led and may not necessarily result from formal R&D investments. Innovation is the exploration and exploitation of new ideas and recombination of existing knowledge in the pursuit of sustained competitive advantage. Besides, both innovation and R&D projects by their nature differ from conventional projects.
Thus, there is a need to examine the Innovation Project Management (IPM) as a distinctive area of managing innovation in projects, using the tools and methods of the project management. The Evolution of Project Management Theory The genesis of the ideas that led to the development of modern project management can arguably be traced back to the protestant reformation of the 15th century. The Protestants and later the Puritans introduced a number of ideas including ‘reductionism’, ‘individualism’ and the ‘protestant work ethic’ (PWE) that resonate strongly in the spirit of modern project management.
Reductionism focuses on removing unnecessary elements of a process or ‘ceremony’ and then breaking the process down into its smallest task or unit to ‘understand’ how it works. Individualism assumes we are active, independent agents who can manage risks and create ideas. These ideas are made into ‘real things’ by social actions contingent upon the availability of a language to describe them. The PWE focuses on the intrinsic value of work. Prior to the protestant reformation most people saw work either as a necessary evil, or as a means to an end.
For Protestants, serving God included participating in and working hard at worldly activities as this was part of God’s purpose for each individual. From the perspective of the evolution of modern project management, these ideas were incorporated into two key philosophies, Liberalism and Newtonianism. Liberalism included the ideas of capitalism (Adam Smith), the division of labour, and that an industrious lifestyle would lead to wealthy societies Newton saw the world as a harmonious mechanism controlled by a ‘universal law’.
Applying scientific observations to parts of the whole would allow understanding and insights to occur and eventually a complete understanding. LITERATURE REVIEW In this paper we seek to establish bridges between two distinctive disciplines – project management and innovation management (innovation studies). Despite seemingly interrelated nature of both subjects, these two research domains have been developing relatively isolated from each other. Innovation Studies
Innovation studies are rooted in the seminal writing of Joseph Schumpeter in the 1920s-1930s (e. g. Schumpeter, 1934), whose ideas started to gain popularity in the 1960s, as the general interest among policymakers and scholars in technological change, R&D and innovation increased. The field formed as a distinctive academic discipline from the 1980s. Scholars like Richard Nelson, Chris Freeman, Bengt-Ake Lundvall, Keith Pavitt, Luc Soete, Giovanni Dosi, Jan Fagerberg, Bart Verspagen, Eric von Hippel and others have shaped and formed this discipline.
The seminal publications in the area include, inter alia, Freeman (1982), Freeman and Soete (1997), Lundvall (1992), Nelson and Winter (1977, 1982), von Hippel (1988). Regarding the definition of innovation – a general consensus has been achieved among innovation scholars who broadly understand this phenomenon as a transformation of knowledge into new products, processes and services. An in-depth review of the innovation literature is beyond the scope of this paper (refer to Fagerberg (2004) for such analysis).
Our intention is to outline main directions of research. In a recent paper, Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009) provide a comprehensive analysis of the cognitive and organizational characteristics of the emerging field of innovation studies and consider its prospects and challenges. The authors trace evolution and dynamics of the field. Reflecting the complex nature of innovation, the field of innovation studies unites various academic disciplines. For examples, Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009) define four main clusters of innovation scholars.
They are “Management” (cluster 1), “Schumpeter Crowd” (cluster 2), “Geography and Policy” (cluster 3. 1), Periphery” (cluster 3. 2) and “Industrial Economics” (cluster 4). For the purposes of our analysis we shall have a closer look at the “Management” cluster, since it is here where the connection between innovation and Project Management can be found. In fact “Management” is the smallest cluster within the entire network of innovation scholars, consisting of only 22 scholars, mainly sociologists and management scholars, with a geographical bias towards the USA.
This small number of scholars (22) is in sharp contrast with the biggest clusters ? “Geography and Policy” (298 scholars) or “Schumpeter Crowd” (309). In terms of publication preferences, apart from Research Policy, the favorite journal for innovation scholars, members of “Management” cluster see management journals as the most relevant publishing outlets, particularly Journal of Product Innovation Management, Management Science and Strategic Management Journal. Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009, p. 29) see a strong link between innovation and management and provide a following description: “Management is to some extent a cross-disciplinary field by default and firm-level innovation falls naturally within its portfolio. …. So between innovation studies and management there clearly is some common ground”. Project Management The project management as a human activity has a long history; e. g. construction of Egyptian pyramids in 2000 BC may be regarded as a project activity. However, the start for the modern Project Management era, as a distinctive research area, was in the 1950s.
Maylor (2005) determines three major stages of the PM historical development. Before the 1950s, the PM as such was not recognized. In the 1950s, tools and techniques were developed to support the management of complex projects. The dominant thinking was based on “one best way” approach, based on numerical methods. The third stage, from the 1990s onwards is characterized by the changing environment in which projects take place. It is more and more realized that a project management approach should be contingent upon its context.
It is also noted that a shift is observed over time in development of project management – from focus on sole project management to the broader management of projects and strategic project management (Fangel, 1993; Morris, 1994; Bryde, 2003). Reflecting these changes in the managerial practices, the body of academic literature on PM has evolved and burgeoned. International Journal of Project Management and Project Management Journals became the flagship publication outlets for PM scholars and practitioners.
A large number of (managerial) handbooks outlining the methods and techniques of PM have been published, e. g. Andersen et al (2004), Bruijn et al (2004) Kerzner (2005), Maylor (2005), Meredith and Mantel (2006), Muller (2009), Roberts (2007), Turner (1999), Turner and Turner (2008). Despite a growing number of publications, there is no unified theoretical basis and there is no unified theory of project management, due to its multidisciplinary nature (Smyth and Morris, 2007). Project management has a more applied nature than other management disciplines.
Although the PM has formed as a distinct research field, there is no universal, generally accepted definition of a project and project management. Turner (1999) develops a generic definition of a project: A project is an endeavor in which human, financial and material resources are organized in a novel way to undertake a unique scope of work, of given specification, which constraints of cost and time, so as to achieve beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives.
There have been several attempts to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art research in PM and outline its trends and future directions (e. g. , PMI, 2004; Betts and Lansley, 1995; Themistocleous and Wearne, 2003; Crawford et al, 2006; Kloppenberg and Opfer, 2002). In a recent article, Kwak and Anbari (2009) review relevant academic journals and identify eight allied disciplines, in which PM is being applied and developed. These disciplines include such areas as Operation Management, Organizational Behavior, Information Technology, Engineering and Construction,
Strategy/Integration, Project Finance and Accounting, and Quality and Management. Notably, one of these eight allied disciplines is “Technology Application / Innovation / New Product Development / Research and Development”. The authors found that only 11% of journal publications on the subject of project management fell under the “Innovation” heading. Yet, importantly, this area showed sustained upward interest, and hence the number of publications, since the 1960s.
Overall, Kwak and Anbari (2009) conclude that the mainstream PM research proceeds largely in the “Strategy / Integration / Portfolio Management / Value of PM / Marketing” direction (30% of all publications examined by the authors). PM AND INNOVATION: THE PAST Projects in one form or another have been undertaken for millennia, but it was only in the latter part of the 20th century people started talking about ‘project management’. Earlier endeavors were seen as acts of worship, engineering or nation building.
And the people controlling the endeavors saw themselves as members of groups focused on specific callings such as generals, priests and architects. There is an important distinction to be drawn here between projects: ‘a temporary Endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result’ and the profession of project management; or at least ‘modern project management’. For a discipline to be considered a profession a number of attributes are generally considered necessary; these are: • Practitioners are required to meet formal educational and entry requirements, • autonomy over the terms and conditions of practice, a code of ethics, • a commitment to service ideals, • a monopoly over a discrete body of knowledge and related skills. Within this context, project management is best considered an ‘emerging profession’ that has developed during the last 30 to 40 years. Over this period project management associations around the world have developed a generally consistent view of the processes involved in ‘project management’, encoded these views into ‘Bodies of Knowledge’ (BoKs), described competent behaviors and are now certifying knowledgeable and/or competent ‘Project Managers’.
Certainly, if ‘modern project management’ does not qualify as a fully fledged profession at this point in time, it will evolve into one fairly quickly. The Evolution of Project Management Tools The central theme running through the various project management concepts is that project management is an integrative process that has at its core, the balancing of the ‘iron triangle’ of time, cost and output. All three facets must be present for a management process to be considered project management. The evolution of cost and scope control into relatively precise processes occurred during the 14th and 18th Centuries respectively.
Time management lacked effective measurement and control until the emergence of ‘critical path’ scheduling in the 1960s. The branch of management that gave rise to the development of the Critical Path Method of scheduling was Operational Research (OR). OR is an interdisciplinary science which uses methods such as mathematical modeling and statistics to assist decision making in complex real-world situations. It is distinguished by its ability to look at and improve an entire system, rather than concentrating on specific processes which was the focus of Taylor’s ‘scientific management’.
The growth of OR was facilitated by the increasing availability and power of computers which were needed to carry out the large numbers of calculations typically required to analyze a system. [pic] Figure 1. The Iron Triangle The first ‘project’ to add science to the process of time control was undertaken by Kelley and Walker to develop the Critical Path Method (CPM) for E. I. du Pont de Numours. In 1956/57 Kelly and Walker started developing the algorithms that became CPM. The program they developed was trialled on plant shutdowns in 1957 And the first paper on critical path scheduling was published in 1959.
The critical meeting to approve this project was held on the 7th May 1957 in Newark, Delaware, where DuPont and Remington Rand jointly committed US$226,400 to fund the project. The foundations of modern project management were laid in 1957; but it took another 12 years before Dr Martin Barnes first described the ‘iron triangle’ of time, cost and output in a course he developed for his UK clients in 1969 called ‘Time and Money in Contract Control’. PM AND INNOVATION: THE FUTURE Defining PM for Future
The biggest challenge facing project management is answering the question ‘what is a project? ’ Until this question can be answered unambiguously the foundation of project management cannot be defined. Current definitions such as the PMBOK’s ‘a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result’ can apply to the baking of a cake as easily as the construction of a multi story building. They are both temporary endeavors to create a unique outcome but in all probability the baking of a cake is not a project.
The traditional view of projects embedded in the various BoKs is derived from both the management theories underpinning ‘modern project management’ and the industrial base of early project management practitioners (construction / defense / engineering). The BoKs tend to treat projects as naturally occurring entities that need to be managed. This is an easy enough assumption when focusing on a building or a battle ship. There is a physical presence that occupies a defined space that needs creating in a defined timeframe to a defined scope.
This view assumes project exists and project management is about transforming the raw materials of the project into a finished and useful form. Consequently it is the presence of the project itself that defines ‘project management’. The PMBOKs version is ‘The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements’. However, if we cannot precisely define a ‘project’, there is no basis for project management and consequently no foundation for a useable theory of project management.
Researchers and academics are starting to reverse the idea that a project is necessary for project management to exist and suggest it is the application of ‘project management’ to an endeavour that creates a project. Some of the ideas being discussed include: • Projects as ‘Temporary Knowledge Organizations (TKOs)’. This school of thought focuses on the idea that the primary instrument of project management is the project team and the recognition that predictability is not a reality of project management.
Some key ideas include: o The concept of the project team as a ‘complex adaptive system (or organism)’, living on the ‘edge of chaos’; responding and adapting to its surroundings (ie the project’s stakeholders) offers one new set of insights. o The idea of ‘Nonlinearity’ suggests that you can do the same thing several times over and get completely different results. Small differences may lead to big changes whilst big variations may have minimal effect. This idea questions the validity of ‘detailed programming’ attempting to predict the path of a project (the ‘butterfly effect’, constrained by ‘strange attractors’). The concept of ‘Complex Responsive Processes of Relating’ (CRPR) puts emphasis on the interaction among people and the essentially responsive and participative nature of the human processes of organizing and relating. According to the modern trend in these field, consequence of accepting these theories is to shift the focus of ‘project management’ from the object of the project to the people involved in the project (ie, its stakeholders), and to recognize that it is people who create the project, work on the project and close the project with all innovation.
Consequently the purpose of most if not all project ‘control documents’ such as schedules and cost plans shift from being an attempt to ‘control the future’ – this is impossible; to a process for communicating with and influencing stakeholders to encourage and guide their involvement in the project. Notwithstanding the advantages of project management, it would be unreasonable to expect all innovation to be carried out through projects. In fact, many ideas are generated by employees in a company on a regular basis, not only within project teams.
Thus, there is certainly a room for functional, on-going organization of innovation process. Even more so, in certain situations project management can be detrimental to innovation. Aggeri and Segrestin (2007) show that the recent project development methods in automotive industry can induce negative effects on collective learning processes and these effects have managerial implications for innovative developments. Argument for Managing Innovation in Projects The origins of project management in the manufacturing and construction ndustries determine an engineering perspective, viewing a project as a task-focused entity, proceeding in a linear or similar way from the point of initiation to implementation. This view prevailed until comparatively recently. This view is seemingly in stark contrast with the nature of innovation. It is increasingly being acknowledged that the innovation is a complex non-linear process. The earliest view on innovation process as a pipeline model (whereby a given input is transformed to a specific output) has been largely abandoned.
Presently, however, project management is increasingly recognised as a key generic skill for business management (Fangel, 1993), rather than a planning-oriented technique or an application of engineering sciences and optimization theory, in which project management has its roots (Soderlund, 2004). The “management by projects” has emerged as general mode of organizing for all forms of enterprise (Turner 2003). This new conceptualization of project management enables to embrace the non-linear nature of innovation.
Even a creative and non-linear nature of innovation is often characterized as an organizational or management process, rather than spontaneous improvisation. Davila et al. (2006) state, “Innovation, like many business functions, is a management process that requires specific tools, rules, and discipline”. Hence, a project, with its defined objective, scope, budget and limitations, can be an appropriate setting of innovation. The other closely linked element in the new world of project management with innovation is embracing uncertainty. Writing on paper cannot control the future!
Schedules do not control time; cost plans do not control costs. Plans outline a possible future and provided a basis for recognizing when things ‘are not going to plan’. For innovation project management to succeed, both project and senior management are going to need to embrace uncertainty and learn skills to manage it rather than expecting predictability and inevitably being disappointed by the variability of ‘reality’ as it unfolds. Challenges of Empirical Studies Scarcity and unreliability, or even lack of data poses a big challenge in research in both innovation and project management. A macro-level research n PM is obstructed by the lack of data on the number of projects, carried out by firms and public institutions, and their characteristics. Problems stem from the definition of a project and the non-disclosure policy of most companies. In such circumstances, PM research has tended to rely on case-studies or on small-scale tailor-made surveys. There is a widely acknowledged lack of large-scale empirical research in PM (Kloppenborg and Opfer, 2002; Soderlund, 2004). It is claimed that the Independent Project Analysis (IPA) is the market leader in quantitative analysis of project management systems, i. . in project evaluation and project system benchmarking (IPA, 2007). All IPA analyses and research are based on proprietary databases. As of mid-2009, IPA’s databases contain more than 11,000 projects of all sizes ($20,000 to $25 billion) executed across the world. Each year, approximately 1,000 projects are added with representation from the many different industries served by IPA. Each project in our databases is characterized by over 2,000 project attributes, including technology, project scope, project type, project costs, year of authorization, and geographical location (IPA 2009).
All information contained in the IPA databases is carefully protected and kept as confidential proprietary data (IPA, 2009). Due to the issues of confidentiality, access for academic researchers is restricted. In the innovation field, academic community has been increasingly using several sources of data, such as granted patents, tailor-made surveys, as well as other data provided by national statistical offices. European research on innovation uses several instruments to obtain data on innovation indicators and to assess national innovation performance.
The two main instruments are the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) and the European Innovation Scorecard (EIS). As of 2009, five successful CIS surveys have been carried out: CIS1 (1992), CIS2 (1996), CIS3 (2001), CIS4 (2004) and CIS 2006. Each new round was characterized by an improved questionnaire, in line with the evolution of understanding of the phenomenon of innovation. The more recent surveys embraced understanding of innovation in a broader sense, and for example, paid more attention to service innovations.
Further, it is expected that the future surveys will also include management techniques, organizational change, environmental benefits, and design and marketing issues. We argue that, taken into consideration the growing relevance of innovation projects, a clearer and explicit wording should be used in CIS questionnaire for determining whether innovation is organized and carried out in projects or functionally. CONCLUSIONS Innovation studies and project management as distinctive disciplines have been developing in a relative isolation from each other.
The analysis in innovation studies domain has rarely explored the mechanisms and patterns of innovation in projects in contrast to traditional (functional or hierarchical) organization. However, since innovation management in companies is increasingly organized in projects, it is of utmost importance to directly address the interplay between innovation management and project management. In this paper, based on the relevant literature and insights from practice, we conceptually examined the relationships between these two research areas aiming at bridging the gap between them.
It is widely acknowledged within the discipline of innovation studies that there is a high percentage of failure of innovation initiatives, in other words, failure is inevitable when managing innovation. The key skill set of the competent project manager will be identifying and managing stakeholder expectations using tools such as the Stakeholder circle to help identify the project’s key stakeholders. Innovation is perceived as a luxury, not as a necessity. Therefore, it is of high priority to manage innovation effectively and efficiently with constrained budgets.

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Future Of The Field

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College essay writing serviceUsing at least two peer-reviewed academic journal articles (dated no earlier than 2012) and what you learned in this class, answer the first two questions. The last two questions will come from your own experiences and opinions. It is anticipated that it will take at least 750 words to adequately explain and defend your answers.Two peer reviewed academic journal articles used (no earlier than 2012) Report uses at least 750 words Critical thinking is evident; topic is fully and richly covered. No more than two errors in punctuation, grammar, and spellingNOTE: DO NOT use direct quotes on this assignment. I need to assess what you learned, not what someone else wrote.Our Blog. Copyright © 2018 HomeworkMarket.com.At our site, we make your academic life easier. Don’t worry about poring through tones of academic materials in search of ideas for your paper. Assign your homework to one of our writers. We’ll write and deliver your assignment on time!

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#075

“The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health,”

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College essay writing serviceQuestion descriptionReview the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report: “The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health,” focusing on the following sections: Transforming Practice, Transforming Education, and Transforming Leadership.Write a paper of 750-1,000 words about the impact on nursing of the 2010 IOM report on the Future of Nursing. In your paper, include:The impact of the IOM report on nursing education.The impact of the IOM report on nursing practice, particularly in primary care, and how you would change your practice to meet the goals of the IOM report.The impact of the IOM report on the nurse’s role as a leader.Cite a minimum of three references.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the criteria and expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.At our site, we make your academic life easier. Don’t worry about poring through tones of academic materials in search of ideas for your paper. Assign your homework to one of our writers. We’ll write and deliver your assignment on time!

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Human resources department and the future

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Answer the questions A,B, C, D.. no need to rewrite the questions. just the letter (A,B, C, D) and the answer. A. What factors should a public agency consider when utilizing volunteers? B. Identify and explain the role(s) of the Human Resources Department in the utilization of contract employees in a public agency. C. What factors should a public agency consider when preparing a policy for the posting of electronic information? What, if any, control does a public agency have over employee “posts” on the Internet? D. Identify and explain three issues that will impact human resource policies over the next five years.

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