Polar Bear

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The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a bear native largely within the Arctic circle encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is the world’s largest land carnivore and also the largest bear, together with the omnivorous Kodiak bear, which is approximately the same size. [3] An adult male weighs around 350-680 kg (770-1 ,500 while an adult female is about half that size.
Although it is closely related to the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrow ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold emperatures, for moving across snow, ice, and open water, and for hunting the seals which make up most of its diet. [5] Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time at sea (hence their scientific name meaning “maritime bear”) and can hunt consistently only from sea ice, so spend much of the year on the frozen sea. The polar bear is classified as a vulnerable species, with 8 of the 19 polar bear subpopulations in decline. 6] For decades, unrestricted hunting[clarification eeded] raised international concern for the future of the species; populations have rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect. [citation needed] For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key fgure in the material, spiritual, and cultural life of Arctic indigenous peoples, and the hunting of polar bears remains important in their cultures. The IIJCN now lists global warming as the most significant threat to the polar bear, primarily because the melting of its sea ice habitat reduces its ability to find sufficient food.
The II-JCN states, “If climatic trends continue polar bears may become extirpated from most of their range within 100 years. “[7] The polar bear was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act by the United States Department of the Interior in 2008. Habitat The polar bear is often regarded as a marine mammal because it spends many months of the year at sea. [28] Its preferred habitat is the annual sea ice covering the waters over the continental shelf and the Arctic inter-island archipelagos.
These areas, known as the “Arctic ring of life”, have high biological productivity in comparison to the deep waters of the high The polar bear tends to frequent areas where sea ice meets water, such as polynyas and leads (temporary stretches of open water in Arctic ice), to hunt the seals that make up most of its diet. [30] Polar bears are therefore found primarily along the perimeter of the polar ice pack, rather than in the Polar Basin close to the North Pole where the density of seals is low. 1] Annual ice contains areas of water that appear and disappear throughout the year as the weather changes. Seals migrate in response to these changes, and polar bears must follow their prey. [29] In Hudson Bay, James Bay, and some other areas, the ice melts completely each summer (an event often referred to as “ice-floe breakup”), forcing polar bears to go onto land and wait through the months until the next freeze-up. [29] In the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, polar bears retreat each summer to the ice further north that remains frozen year-round.

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#065

Polar Bear Crisis

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Bear Crisis In May 2008, the U. S listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The Arctic is one of the most discussed on climate change, due to the fact that warming is greatest there and because what happens in the Arctic has the can eventually impact the rest of the Earth. So far, not only has it affected the way the ice is melting and the weather is changing, but it is mainly affecting the animals that are living there (for example, polar bears).
Although, there are many environmentalists, and companies tried to solve, or at least help the situation (like Coca-Cola and WWF), the problem is not getting any better. “As sea ice is being reduced in the area, the polar bear’s basis for survival is being threatened,” said John Laird, WWF’s Nunavut regional conservation director. “The sea ice is melting earlier in the spring which is sending the polar bears to land earlier without them having developed as much fat reserves for the ice free season.
By the end of the summer they are skinny bears, which in the worst case can affect their ability to reproduce. ” Also, The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service says that, “. . . extensive scientific studies have indicated that the increased observation of bears on land is a result of changing distribution patterns and a result of changes in the accessibility of sea ice habitat. ” It is crazy to think that all of these things are all being affected because we are not taking care of our planet; even though it’s happening thousands of miles away.
Because we put trash on the ground, pollute the air etc. animals are being affected, especially the polar bears. Since bears use the sea ice to hunt for their main prey, seals, without the sea ice, their range are drastically reduced. On top of it all, the oil and gas development along the edges of the land mass and you have more problems. It has been said that two thirds of polar bears will disappear by 2050.

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#065

What two conditions are considered when determining whether a molecule is polar or non-polar?

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What two conditions are considered when determining whether a molecule is polar or non-polar?
Pre-lab Questions
What two conditions are considered when determining whether a molecule is polar or non-polar?
What determines if a bond is polar?
List several examples of polar molecules.
List several examples of non-polar molecules.
What is the rule when using polar and non-polar solvents?
Experiment: Slime Time
Some inks are polar while others are non‐polar. A polar solvent will pick up polar inks, while a non‐polar solvent will pick up non‐polar inks. In this lab you will use inks to identify slime and silly putty as polar or non‐polar. You will also use paper chromatography to verify the inks are correctly identified as polar or non‐polar.
Procedure
**Take photographs of your experiment for Parts 1, 2, and 3; and your results. Submit them with your laboratory report.**
Part 1: Making Slime
Weigh out 0.5 g of guar gum into a 250 mL beaker.
Measure 50.0 mL of distilled water into a 100 mL graduated cylinder and pour it into the 250 mL beaker that contains the guar gum.
Rapidly stir the mixture with a stirring rod for at least 3 minutes and until the guar gum is dissolved.
Measure 4.00 mL of a 4% Borax solution into a 10 mL graduated cylinder and add it to the guar gum and water.
Stir the solution until it becomes slime. This will take a few minutes. If the slime remains too runny, add an additional 1.0 mL of the 4.0% Borax solution and continue to stir until the slime is the right consistency.
Once you are satisfied with the slime, pour it into your hands. Be sure not to drop any of it on to the floor.
Manipulate the slime in your hands. Write down observations made about how slime pours, stretches, breaks, etc.
CAUTION: Slime is slippery and if dropped it can make the work area slick.
Place the slime back into the beaker and WASH YOUR HANDS.
Part 2: Slime and Putty Ink Tests
On a piece of notebook paper make one 20-25 mm long mark of each of the inks you are testing. Space the marks at least one inch apart. Use a pencil to label each mark with its description.
Water soluble inks include those in highlighters and certain pens.
Water insoluble inks include those in permanent pens/markers, newsprint, and a dry-erase markers.
While the inks are drying, select a passage or a picture in the newspaper to test with the slime.
Break off a small piece of slime that is 3 – 5 cm in diameter. Gently place this piece on top of the newspaper print, and then carefully pick it up again.
Observe and record in Table 1 whether or not the ink was picked up onto the slime.
Break off another small piece of slime. Once the inks from Step 1 have dried, gently place the slime on top of the first spot on the notebook paper, and then carefully pick it up. Repeat this for each of the inks. Observe and record which inks were picked up (dissolved) by the slime in Table 1.
Repeat this ink testing two more times for accuracy.
Before performing ink tests on silly putty, in the Data section, hypothesize which inks the silly putty will pick up.
Perform ink tests on silly putty in the same manner as above. Record your results in Table 2
Part 3: Chromatography of Ink Samples
Use a pencil or scissors to poke a small hole in the center of a piece of filter paper (see Figure 4).
Spot the filter paper evenly spaced approximately 2 cm from the small hole with the two insoluble inks and the two soluble inks that were used in Part 2.
Obtain a ½ piece of filter paper. Fold the paper in half several times so that it makes a narrow wick.
Insert the wick into the hole of the spotted paper so that it is above the top of the filter paper by approximately 2 cm.
Fill a 250 mL beaker 3/4 full with water.
Set the filter paper on top of the beaker so that the bottom of the wick is in the water. The paper should hang over the edge of the beaker with the spotted side up.
Allow water to travel until it is approximately 1 cm from the edge of the filter paper. Remove the filter paper from the beaker.
Observe which inks moved from where they were originally spotted. Record your observations in Part 3 of the Data section.
Data
Part 1
Slime Observations:
Part 2
Table 1: Results of Ink Testing for Slime
Name of Ink Picked up (dissolved) Did not pick up
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3
Newsprint
Highlighter
Roller ball pen
Sharpie marker
Dry-erase marker
Hypothesis for Silly Putty (Procedure Part 2, Step 7):
Table 2: Results of Ink Testing for Silly Putty
Name of Ink Picked up (dissolved) Did not pick up<b…

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#075

What determines if a bond is polar?

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Pre-lab Questions
1. List the atomic numbers for each of the following elements.
Iron
_________
Oxygen
_________
Calcium
_________
Nitrogen
_________
Potassium
_________
Hydrogen
_________
2. What determines if a bond is polar?
3. Use the periodic table to determine if potassium chloride (KCl) formed through covalent or ionic bonds? Use evidence from the Introduction to support your answer.
4. Research two common, polar molecules and two common nonpolar molecules. Draw their molecular structure and explain how the structure makes each molecule polar or non-polar.

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#075

Use the data listed in Table 1 to plot the location of the globular clusters on the polar graph……

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Use the data listed in Table 1 to plot the location of the globular clusters on the polar graph paper provided on page 4. Right Ascension (RA) goes in a counter-clockwise direction. That is, RA 0h is at the top, 6h is directly to the left, 12h is straight down, and 18h is directly to the right. Once you determine the direction you need using the RA provided, go the distance indicated (count outward from 0, at the center of the graph paper) and make a mark. Do this for each of the clusters listed.
Pal 2 04.8h 3.5
T Cen 13.4h 5.2
1. Does your plot indicate a direction that you would believe to be toward the center of the Galaxy? What is the RA of that direction?
2. The center of the Milky Way actually lies in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. Use the star charts in the Appendix A of your textbook to find the RA of Sagittarius. What is the RA of Sagittarius? (it should be very close to 19h) How does this compare with your answer to #11?
3. Estimate how far it is to the center of the Galaxy using your plot? What is that distance in kpc?
4. Use your textbook to find the actual distance to the center of the Galaxy in light years (from chapter 19 “Our Galaxy”). Convert this distance to kpc (1 kpc = 3261.56 light years) and compare it to your answer to #13. Show your calculations here.
5. Summarize what you have learned from this exercise. Write at least 4 complete sentences.
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Mar 18 2018 09:41 PM
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#055