Reagan Revolution

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CongressLecture Outline May 20, 2013 The Reagan Revolution & Cold War in the 1980s I. Reagan Revolution and the Rise of the New Right The new grassroots conservative movement. it focused on a few themes: 1) focus on physical restraint: reigning in spending of the economy, the great society programs 2) Tax code revision 3) government efficiency: sense of urgency for this, because of how transparent the government, and what it owed to the u. s. public. a. Reagan’s views and policies:: 1980’s high inflation and faltering economy, and regean promised to return the nation to economic promise. Campaign had focused on a strong military and a scaled back federal government. (he specifically wanted the federal government scaled back, but it was okay to undergo spending for national security (military). tensions between the national security state and the spending for the national government
He wanted a return to traditional values that had been lost. he was enormously charismatic. He was good at delivering lines and delivering his speeches,. “government is not the solution to our problem, government is the problem government needed to be scaled back.. ederal government needed to lessen itself in our daily lives. and in the business community too. he wanted a reversal of the programs in the great society. roll back big government. Roll back in domestic policy, expanding it in foreign policy with the military. 1989 when he concluded his presidency, economy debt had tripled. b. “Reaganomics” / Supply-side economics: seeking to increase the economies capacity to produce. the theory behind it was exxessive taxation was slowing things down in the economy, and it discouraged hard work? have economic growth by cutting taxes…so people could invest that money in another way.
Trickle down economics: leave the money to the wealthy and it will trickle down into society. c. Economic Recovery Tax of 1981: lowered the taxes on the wealth to free up capital. 23% cut. then social security taxes went up d. Business expansion: capital was freed up, and there was an expansion and the government did grow. high employment, Anti-union stance. violating a law of federal worked fighting back. e. cut non-defense federal spending. it was hard to cut social security and medicare. US became a debter nation f. rapid growth and critique of the economy . Wall Street & Deregulation: dirty decade, stock speculation, corporate mergers, a lot of shady wallstreet dealing, and a lot of deregulation. These companies were too bogged down in regulation. so they deregulated business. and allow corporations to make risks they wouldn’t normally take. also allowed for greater abuses. laizze faire, leave business alone, big stores were growing during time, and have merger mania (Microsoft when public in 1986, this environment was condusive) this also created a lot of tensions. class tensions were exacerbated. elebration of wealth for those getting richer, and the poor getting poorer. h. lifestyles for the rich and the famous II. The Cold War & Foreign Policy in the 1980s i. Reagan’s domestic vs. foreign policies: he had a foreign policy that was highly activist, but he wanted to stay small in domestic. he wanted to battle communism and leftism. he launched the biggest military expansion in peacetime history. More than 70% 1981 to 1986, Reagan was struck by wanting the united states to both be powerful military and symbolically. they wanted people to associate us as a military strength.
He had a nostalgia for WW2, and how the US emerged out of ww2. j. Nuclear freeze movement: anti nuclear protest throughout this time in force in the early 1980’s activists one a lot of recruits. The entire world wold be blown up if we didn’t reduce the arms. This wasn’t just in the united states, it was in great Britain and Germany too. it was a world wide movement. it called a cause for a freeze, banning testing and building. june 1982 800,000 freeze campaign. it permiated all levels of society. in response to this he had the star wars speech k. Star Wars” & Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), 1983: this was a space based missile system, that was supposed to defend the united states from nuclear attack. it looked very futuristic, we do have some of this technology now however. don’t introduce this because we really don’t have this technology
l. Anticommunism & Latin America: some critics that expressed fear, that hear we are repeating veitnam. Congress responded to the fears, and congress said do not fund this anymore. m. “Evil Empire” speech (1983) n. Iran-Contra Scandel i. Role of Oliver North: national security aid, stationed in the white house. e directed money from the Iranian arms sales to the contras. congress had banned this, do not fund the contras anymore. congress had forbidden this aid. North had circumvented this ban by raising money from wealthy conservatives from other governments, to fund this. (wealthy new right conservatives funded this) all in secret to the congress and to the people. New story broke, televised hearings in 1987, erased computer files right before the fbi arrived. he defended it by saying sometimes you need to go above the law for patriotism. he emphasized, I love my country and I am a patriot.
Reagan praised north as a national hero, for undergoing this with American security in mind, but he also fired him. TV Reagan denied knowing anything about the scandal, but mistakes were made. criticized his lack management style. there was no evidence that he knew of this, but there was a lot of lax white house procedures. it diminished the credibility on a national scale of the us presidency, but he emerged form this unscathed. this is when historians lok back and he really was the Teflon president, the American public still supported him I. Conclusion: 1989, End of the Cold War & Post-Cold War Challenges

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#065

Tax and Reagan

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At the end of the Carter presidency, the nation’s idealistic dreams of the 60’s was worn down by inflation, foreign policy turmoil and rising crime rate, the nation was troubled by the late 70’s. Due to this many Americans were ready to embrace a new conservatism in social, economic and political life in the 80’s. In the 1980 bid for President, Reagan won the Republican nomination after two failed attempts in 1968 and 1976. Although Ronald Reagan once held Democratic views, he grew more conservative and he official took the side of the Republicans in the 1960’s.
Reagans domestic views were the change Americans were looking for and Reagan, along with his running mate George H. W Bush, won the 1980 election. In his 1981 inauguration, Reagans famous words about the economy were, “In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem. ” After only 71 days in office Reagan survived an assassination attempt and gained even more support from Americans. So he initiated his domestic policies by advancing a set of policies, also known as Reaganomics, his policies were launched as a three prong assault on taxes, social welfare spending and regulatory bureaucracy.
Reagan organized his cabinet, and with the release of the Iranian hostages the day he was inaugurated, freed Reagan and his cabinet to dig right in to come up with a solution to fix the economy. Two major components of the solution was to reduce taxes and budget cuts. Reagan emphasized the importance of supply side economics and the importance of investments to bolster the economy. To boost investments, after just a few weeks in office Reagan submitted a tax reduction plan to congress which would reduce taxes by 23 percent over three years and trim the budget by 41 billion.
Reagan won approval of the Economic Recovery Tax Act. Due to the act passing, the tax rate for wealthy American dropped from 70 percent to 50 percent. This freed up money for the wealthy to invest in productive enterprises. Corporate income tax rate was also reduced from 70 percent to 34 percent. Also under this tax plan individual tax brackets were indexed for inflation and the poor were exempt from individual income tax. The most important aspect of Reaganomics is the major reversal of the tax treatment of business income.
In 1981 a set of investment incentive was approved, the tax bill the Accelerated Cost Recovery System as part of the Economic Recovery Tax Act was put in place. The ACRS idea was to increase the tax deduction for the depreciation of property, this freed up more cash for business to expand. And since this was put into place during a recession, it released a copious amount of cash flow and expected to add between $50 and $100 billion to the incomes of businesses and individuals income. This expansion would increase government revenues and offset the loss of tax dollars stemming from the original tax cut.
The investment incentives would gradually be reduced over the period of 1981 to 1985, in 1996 the tax laws broadened what businesses and individuals could claim as a tax deduction. A culmination of this as well as tax cuts reduced the federal revenue GDP from 20. 2 percent in 1981 to 19. 2 percent in 1989 at the end of the Reagan presidency. Reagan wanted to turn our nation back into the once leader of capitalist societies after we had helped rebuild Germany and Japan, their industry thrived due to newer more productive technology taking America out as the leader.
America was stuck with old equipment that was not as efficient as Germany and Japan. Reagan understood that providing companies with tax breaks that the extra money in tax breaks would allow companies to restore their companies with newer more efficient technology to gain the leadership back. But cutting taxes was not going to be enough to put the economy back into place, the budget needed to be balanced and with that came cutbacks To balance the budget Reagans budget director, David Stockman, hoped to offset the tax reduction with comparable cutbacks in federal expenditures.
To try to obtain this goal, Stockman proposed cutbacks in Social Security and Medicare. These measures seemed too ambitious as Congress and the President rejected the notion, not wanting to cause hostile feelings among the middleclass who views their benefits as sacred. Reagan was a firm believer that the less involved the government was in the lives of individuals and affairs of businesses, the more prosperous we would become. He scaled back government spending on programs such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children and school lunch programs and pushed the responsibilities onto each state.
Reagan called this the “new federation”, where others called it cold-hearted Hooverism. As some charged that the economic program attacked the lower class, Reagan recalled his own impoverished child hood and still stood firm that the less fortunate were not going to thrive by taking handouts, rather help themselves by creating a thriving private sector where employment is available. The budget cuts affected the fastest growing programs in the 1960’s they included; food stamps, comprehensive employment and training act, federal guaranteed loan programs for higher education, these programs saw the highest cuts.
Although all categories except for the defense budget, were affected by budget cuts, the two highest were income security and education, training, employment and social service. With some 21 million people receiving food stamps, Congress was very cautious on the cutbacks and although the cutbacks did occur most of the welfare programs were preserved due to their importance. The hardest hit were families with a low mean census income, or households only ran by one parent, typically the mother. The majority of these households that were affected were African American.
Their assistance was either completely cut off because they were now considered above the poverty line or their assistance was cut back. This discouraged many women from working because non-working women were making more dispensable income per month relying on welfare benefits. Another class that these cutbacks affected were the nearly poor. They were the ones who were barely above the poverty line with the aid of food stamps and unemployment benefits, but because of their income level, were deemed that they did not need assistance and access to higher education and housing were restricted with this group.
This group however struggled to make ends meet living off of just their incomes. Although Congress cutback welfare benefits, they continued to lavish huge subsidies and tariff protection to the huge business corporation and the rich farmers. Critics dubbed this “welfare for the rich”. And even though cut backs happened, the administration fell short of its goals and the deficit increased. This put our country into a severe recession, Reagan often received letters from impoverished Americans about their standard of living and Reagan would often respond with a handwritten note of encouragement and put a personal check in with it.
His plan was that by giving too the corporations that their prosperity would trickle down to the lower class. By the middle of his first term, Reagan proved that his method was working, with decreased inflation and increased employment, his stimulus package was improving the economy. He showed Americans that government does not have to be relied on in order to make a living. Beginning in the late 1982’s Americans were enjoying the longest economic peacetime and by 1984 had more faith about the current economic system, and Reagan was credited for making it happen.
But it is often overlooked that Reagan and his domestic policies created record debt and accumulated more debt than the government had seen in its entire history. This was partially because Reagan knew the importance of defense and was known to say, “Defense is not a budget item, you spend what you need. ” Reagan along with his Defense Secretary, Casper Weinberges, pushed thru a 1. 2 trillion, 5 year military spending program. In this program, Reagan brought back to life some of the projects that were initiated during the Carter administration.
He revived the B-1 program which Carter had cancelled due to the expense. But the most aspiring plan was the Strategic Defense Initiative dubbed the “Star Wars Initiative”. This plan was to devise satellites that were laser equipped so that it could detect and destroy incoming nuclear ballistic missiles, and destroy them before they could impact the United States. Regan made nuclear arms control one of the keynotes of his administration and called upon the nation’s scientist to use their talents to help make this plan become reality.
With talks with the Soviet Union over weapons control, a meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev ended bitterly when Gorbachev demanded that talks of arms control were contingent of the US abolishing the SDI program. Regan continued with the program, Congress allowed the funding which reached to 30 billion dollars and did not have anything to show for it. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, by the mid 1990’s the SDI was forever put on hold. The Regan administration gave our nation hope.
He was able to reduce inflation and increase employment. His defense plan however put the nation into the largest debt it had ever seen. Reaganomics to this day is still debated, supporters point out the 118 million jobs that it created along with the increase of trade. While critics say that his cutting of funding was irresponsible resulting in threats to public health and safety. When Reagan left office after 8 years he had the highest approval rating of any President since Roosevelt and the highest of any president since him as well.

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#065

After looking at Reagan, G HW Bush, Clinton, Bush, and Obama who do their policies compare and…

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After looking at Reagan, G HW Bush, Clinton, Bush, and Obama who do their policies compare and contrast with those of the current president, Trump?
Write an essay for each of the questions bellow :
After looking at Reagan, G HW Bush, Clinton, Bush, and Obama who do their policies compare and contrast with those of the current president, Trump?Be specific and give plenty of examples to back up what you have to say.
After looking at the entire period from 1945 to the present, which two presidents and their administrations would you consider to be the best and the worst.Use specific examples to back up your choices.
Topic: After looking at Reagan, G HW Bush, Clinton, Bush, and Obama who do their policies compare and contrast with those of the current president, Trump?

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#075

No historical actor personifies the 1980s more than Ronald Reagan. He is one of those presidents…

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No historical actor personifies the 1980s more than Ronald Reagan. He is one of those presidents whom Americans either loved or hated. Read about his policies and legacy in Chapter 30, and then answer the question below:
Which group(s) of Americans had reason to love Reagan, and which group(s) had reason to wish he had never become President?
Please respond to this question with a minimum 200-word post. You should include one textbook citation in your post, but be careful NOT to use a long quotation that takes away from YOUR thoughts. Do not use any sources other than the course textbook (American Promise), including internet material.Required book:Roark, et al. The American Promise, A History of the United States: Volume 2, From 1865, 7 th Ed.
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#065

Get Cheap assignment Help Online: Should  Ronald Reagan be considered a hero for his handling of the Cold War?  

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Get Cheap assignment Help Online: Should  Ronald Reagan be considered a hero for his handling of the Cold War?
Why were so many African colonies able to gain their independence in the  1960s? Why did so many African countries experience civil wars or other  violence after they gained independence?
Is  there something the Soviet Union could have done differently to avoid  losing the Cold War? If so, what? If not, why don’t you think the  Soviets understood that?
Should  Ronald Reagan be considered a hero for his handling of the Cold War?  Should Mikhail Gorbachev? In each case, explain why or why not, using  specific examples.
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#075

Ronald Reagan’s Speech: Address to the Nation on the Challenger

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Background Information
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American actor and politician who served as the 40th President of the United States. Before Reagan became the president, he was a Hollywood actor, a union leader, and the Governor of California for two terms from 1967 to 1975. Reagan became the President of the United States in 1981 and served for two terms until 1989 (Mann & Massie, 2009). During his tenure as the president, on January 28, 1986, Reagan gave a speech regarding an event that had occurred earlier in the day and resulted into the whole nation mourning. As a result of the country’s interest in space programs, seven individual set on a journey to the space, but their space shuttle broke apart 73 seconds after takeoff (Pemberton, 2015). Consequently, President Reagan gave the speech to console the families of those who were lost in the accident as well as to joining the whole country in mourning the loss of those heroes. Clearly, the nation did not expect for the accident to occur and hence expected the president to share some light on the issue and provide a reassurance to the public on the same matter (Anderson & Anderson, 2015).
Ronald Reagan Biographical Information
Synopsis
            Born on February 6th, 1911 in Tampico, Illinois, Ronald Wilson Reagan initially pursued a career in entertainment and as a consequence appeared in more than 50 films. It was while he was in the entertainment industry that Reagan met his future wife (Nancy Reagan). Reagan later served as the Governor of California for two terms. He entered the politics as a liberal Democrat. However, he run for presidency as a Republican. Reagan won two terms, which he served until 1989 and became a conservative icon in the following decades. In his later years, Reagan suffered Alzheimer disease which eventual took his life on June 5th, 2004.
Childhood and Education
            Ronald Reagan was born on 6th February, 1911, to John Edward Reagan and Nellie Wilson Reagan. During his early life, his family lived in different towns, moving from one town to another, and finally settled in Dixon, Illinois. Reagan family was relatively poor. His father operated a shoe store to provide for the family. Reagan joined Dixon High School and took part in different activities including athletics, school plays, and also served as the student body president in the final year. He graduated from the high school in 1928 and joined at Eureka College through an athletic scholarship to pursue economics and sociology. While in college, Reagan played football, captained the swim team, ran track, acted in college productions, and worked as a student council president. He graduated in 1932.
Hollywood Career and Marriage
            Reagan joined the movie studio Warner Bros on a seven year contract in 1937. The following three decades saw him appear in more than fifty movies including Knute Rockne, All American. Reagan married Jane Wyman, an actress, and later had a daughter and adopted a son. The couple did not last for long as it divorced in 1948. He later married Nancy Davis, also an actress, through a wedding in 1952 and they were blessed with two children, Patricia and Ronald. In 1954, Reagan participated in television drama series (The General Electric Theater) and, as part of his responsibility, he traveled across the country acting in the capacity of public relations representative for General Electric (GE). It was during this period in Reagan history that he developed an interest in politics. He started speaking out against wasteful spending and excessive government regulation.
Governorship and Presidential Bid
            Reagan enter national politics in 1964 after giving a well-received speech for the then Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. Two years later, Reagan became the Governor for California beating the incumbent. He again run for same office in 1970 and won a second term. Reagan took part in the 1968 and 1976 presidential nomination on a republican ticket, failing to get the nomination in both occasions. It was until 1980 that he received the nomination and later defeated President Jimmy Carter in the presidential elections.
Inauguration and Assassination Attempt
            Reagan was inaugurated in January 20th, 1981. In his inauguration speech, President Reagan emphasized that he was going to change the government was run to ensure citizens benefited from his tenure. On March 30th, 1981, an assassination attempt was made on Reagan’s life but he survived this with a bullet injury.
Domestic Agenda and Foreign Affairs
            During his term, President Reagan introduced different conservative policies including tax cuts, increased military spending, reduced spending in certain social programs, and implemented different measures aimed at deregulating business. Regarding foreign affairs, Reagan was praised for ending the Cold War. He also sanctioned the sending of American troops to different countries including Lebanon and Beirut for peacekeeping missions.
Reelection
            Reagan was reelected as the US President in 1984 with a landslide win. During the second term, Reagan managed to forge new diplomatic relationship with the Soviet Union. His efforts also led to the tearing down of the Berlin Wall.
Later Years and Death
            Reagan left the White House in 1989 and returned to his home in Los Angeles, California. Two years later, the Ronald W. Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs was established in Simi Valley, California. In 1994, the retired president (Reagan) revealed to the public that he was suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Reagan died on June 5th, 2004 at age 93.
Pressing Issues and Events prior to the Speech
            The ‘address to the Nation on the Challenger” occurred at a time when the United States was on the quest to explore the space. The country was racing against time to beat its bitter rivals in the space programs such as Russia. The country had hopped the Challenger could complete its journey to the space and back. However, this did not happen as the space shuttle broke apart shortly after leaving the ground (Mann & Massie, 2009).
Rationale for Examining the Speech
            The speech is very significant as it is based on a time in American history when the country was committed to making the impossible possible. This was not the first time such an accident had happened as a result of the country’s commitment to exploring the space. For example, in the president’s speech, he mentioned that a similar accident had occurred 19 years before killing three astronauts (Reagan, 2004). The speech is unique considering the president had to postpone the speech he was going to give on the state of the Union. This was the first time a president ever postponed this important speech (state of Union). Despite the accident, President Reagan emphasized that the country was going to continue with the space program regardless. It is worth examining the speech to understand the reasons behind the president’s sentiments (Anderson & Anderson, 2015).
 
References
Anderson, M., & Anderson, A. G. (2015). Ronald Reagan: Decisions of Greatness. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Mann, J., & Massie, S. (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: a History of the End of the Cold War. New York, NY: Penguin.
Pemberton, W. E. (2015). Exit with Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan. New York, NY: Routledge.
Reagan, R. (2004). Speaking My Mind: Selected Speeche. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
 
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#065

Buy Coursework: Coursework Writing- Of all of the presidents from 1970-2000 – Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton – which one do you think was the most successful?

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Buy Coursework: Coursework Writing- Of all of the presidents from 1970-2000 – Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton – which one do you think was the most successful?
What was Thomas Jefferson’s most significant accomplishment and why? 
Was the War of 1812 justified? What were the major weaknesses and strengths of the United States during the war?
Of all of the presidents from 1970-2000 – Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton – which one do you think was the most successful? Why? Which one do you think was the least successful? Why?
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#075

Reagan being President

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Where does Reagan fall in terms of being able to exercise the power of being President? Why do later Presidents either emulate or avoid his example?
Book essay
“Michael Schaller, Ronald Reagan”
https://books.google.com/books?id=zYYVDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Ronald+Reagan+by+Michael+Schaller&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2yIq16YPaAhWENpoKHbutADUQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Ronald%20Reagan%20by%20Michael%20Schaller&f=false
Make sure to use the source in Chicago formate. And use footnotes on the paper.
**No plagiarism**

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#065

Of all of the presidents from 1970-2000 – Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton…

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at least ten to 15 sentences please for a discussion board
Of all of the presidents from 1970-2000 – Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton – which one do you think was the most successful? Why? Which one do you think was the least successful? Why?
Course website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraID=8&smtid=2

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#075