Remote Sensing in India

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The evolution of National Natural Resource Management System (NNRMS) towards fully harnessing the potentials of space remote sensing and the development of the series of Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, besides establishment of necessary ground based data establishment of necessary ground based data reception processing and issemination systems as well as remote sensing facilities at National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Space Applications Centre (SAC) and Regional Remote Sensing (Service Centres (RRSSCs) for efficient and effective analysis of remotely sensed data are the major steps accomplished in pursuit of this goal.
With the establishment of Remote Sensing Applications Centres in several States under many Governmental organizations, remote sensing today has come to stay as an integral part of the national development efforts in the vital sectors of agriculture, hydrology, eology, forestry, oceanography, mineral resources and distaster management like drought, flood, cyclone, earthquake, landslides crop pests, forest fires etc. , thus touching every facet of national development.
Today, India has acquired a strong self reliant base to harness the full potential of this technology and as a result, the national objective of achieving sustainable development at microlevel is being addressed through the integration of remotely sensed data with other relevant collateral information to arrive at locale specific, environment friendly, economically iable and culturally acceptable treatment packages (Rao, 1991 and Jayaramansn, el at 1993).
Space and Ground Segments The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-A), the first in the operational series of Indian Remote Sensing Satellites launched in March 1988, has been functioning satisfactorily for the past 6 h year but still continues tpo provide quality data. The second satellite in the IRS series, IRS-IB, launched in August 1991, is performing very well. These two satellites have become the mainstay of the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) IRS-I All B provides imagery from the two ameras, linear Imaging Self Scanners, LISS-I with both the resolution 72. m and LISS- ‘IA and LISS-IIB both with a resolution of 36. 25m. IRS-IA and 1B together provide imagery with a combined repetivity of 11 days. While IRS-IA has so far provided more than scenes, IRS-I B has provided more than scenes. The successful implementation of the operational IRS-IA 1B system in the country and the need to cater tot eh enhanced user demands in the 1990’s has given rise to confguring the second generation remote sensing satellitesm IRS-IC and ID taking in to account the echnology development scenario and user requirements during the nineties.
The second generation of IRS Satellites namely IRs-1C and ID which are now under development for launch in 1995 and 1998 respectively have made very good progress more frequent revisits, stereo-viewing and onboard data recording facility. The imaging sensors planned for IRS-IC and ID are a multi-spectral Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS-3) in visible and near Ir bands, a short Wave infrared (SWIR) band, a panchromatic camera with stereo viewing capability and a Wide Field Sensor (WIFS) in visible and near IROayaraman et. 1992). It is also planned to have onboard data recording capabilities to record the pay load data for wider data coverage/ distribution. IRS-ID identical to IRS-IC will be in – orbit to ensure data continuity beyond the mid nineties. The development flights of PSLV during the timeframe of 1994-96 are progressing well. The IRS-P2 will carry the payload flown onboard IRS-IA and 1B in order to provide continuity of data services to the remote sensing user community in the country.
The IRS-P3 will carry a payload mix of sensors for application related to oceanography and vegetation dynamics. esides a scientific payload is planned to be included of experimental studies in X-ray astronomy. Thus IRS-P3 will carry a Modular Optoelectronic canner (MOS), a Wide field Sensor (WiFS) ad an X-ray astronomy payload. The capability for microwave remote sensing has also been achieved in the India through development of airborne C-band SAR, multifrequency micro – wave radiometer and multifrequency scatterometer.
Based on the encouraging results obtained from several pilot scale studies on ocean applications and considering the serious interest in monitoring and forecasting of a sea state from meteorological oint of view, efforts are underway to realize and indigenously developed Oceansat. Data Reception, Processing and Dissemination The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad continued to acquire and archive data from Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, IRS-IA and IRS-IB. In addition, data from other contemporary satellites, viz, Landsat NOAA and ERS-I SAR are also being received.
Augmention of ground segment elements for IRS-IC/I D data reception and processing is nearing completion. It is proposed to received SeaWiFS data after the launch SEASTAR satellite. Satellite data products are being disseminated to the users in the form of hotographic films, paper prints, CCT’s floppy and cartridge products. About 705 of the user demands in the country is met by IRs-1A/1 B data. As part of aerial remote sensing programme, about 759 ours of aerial flying were undertake during the year mainly for aeromagnetic survey, town and country planning, sea level rise, oil exploration and metropolitan developments.

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