How is the separation of the programming and operating functions accomplished in a properly…

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How is the separation of the programming and operating functions accomplished in a properly functioning IT environment?
Smith, a certified public accounting firm, was engaged to audit the financial statements of the Sky-is-the-Limit company. The company has its own IT installation. While obtaining an understanding of internal control, Smith found that Sky-is-the-Limit lacked proper segregation of the programming and operating functions. Smith analyzed the internal control surrounding the system to ensure that the corporate governance was being maintained, and he concluded that the existing compensating general control activities provided reasonable assurance that the objectives of internal control were being met.
Prepare a letter addressed to the board of directors that discusses the following:
How is the separation of the programming and operating functions accomplished in a properly functioning IT environment? Explain the 3 subdivisions of information systems management, and discuss how they apply to this situation.
Please submit your assignment.
Your assignment will be graded in accordance with the following criteria. Click here to view the grading rubric.
For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
Reading Assignment Whittington & Pany: Ch. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Assignment Objectives
Compare and contrast internal and external auditing in terms of their role in business and society, their goals and objectives, and their processes and practice
Topic: How is the separation of the programming and operating functions accomplished in a properly functioning IT environment?

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#075

Separation of Power

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In this essay I shall attempt to analyse whether the separation of powers is respected in the attribution of competences within the European Union. The separation of powers In order to assess this question we first have to consider what the doctrine of separation of powers actually is. The idea was developed by the French jurist Montesquieu in the 18th Century. It is based on a division of power between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. Each institution have their distinct and largely exclusive domain.
The legislative function involves the enactment of general rules determining the structure and powers of public authorities and regulating the conduct of citizens and private organisations. The executive’s main function is to carry out the law. It initiates legislation, maintains order, promotes social and economic welfare, administrates public services and conducts external relations of the state among other things. The primary judicial function is to determine disputed questions of fact and law in accordance with the law laid down by the legislature.
The concept of “separation” may mean at least three different things: (i)that the same persons should not form part of more than one of the three organs of government, e. g. , that ministers should not sit in Parliament; (ii)that one organ of government should not control or interfere in judicial decisions; (iii)that one organ of government should not exercise the functions of another, e. g. , that ministers should not have legislative powers. The reason why there should be a separation of powers is so that each distinct institution can carry out its function independently and check the other two – a form of checks and balances.
The doctrine is opposed to the concentration of state power in a single person or group, since that is a clear threat to democratic government and in the same sense it is important that the legislature is not only a rubber stamp for the executive. Even an independent judiciary is necessary if the rule of law is to have any substance. It is in the US’ constitution that this doctrine can best be seen. How then does the division of power look like within the European Union? The ain institutions within the Union are the Council of the EU (also known as the Council of Ministers), the European Commission, the European Parliament (the EP) and the European Court of Justice (the ECJ). In deep contrast to the doctrine of separation of powers, there is no independent legislature or executive within the EU. Almost all of the institutions are interrelated and there is no clear separation of competences. Only the judiciary (the ECJ) is more or less separated from the other institutions regarding its judiciary powers. The Legislature
In the EU, the legislative power is shared between the Council of EU and the European Parliament. The Council is the EU’s main decision-making institution and final legislative authority. However, it shares competence with the EP in respect to the legislative power. For a wide range of Community issues it exercises its legislative power in co-decision with the Parliament. The role of the Council as the main decision-making institution in the EU is defined in terms of three pillars set out in the Treaty of Maastricht. The first pillar covers a wide range of policies such as agriculture, environment, transport, energy and development.
The Council may either adopt, amend or ignore the proposed law. However, a wide range of legislation is subject to a co-decision procedure. Depending on the individual legal basis, the EP takes part, to varying degrees, in the drafting of Community legislation. The role of the EP as co-legislator applies to a wide range of issues – 39 legal bases in the EC Treaty. The co-decision procedure means that legislation has to be adopted by both the Council and the Parliament. This is a clear example of the mixture of competences that exists within the EU. For the two other pillars the Council is the sole decision-maker.
Instead there is a consultation procedure, which requires consultation from the EP before the Council can adopt a legislative proposal. The Council is not required to accept the amendments listed in the opinion of the EP. The Council and the Parliament also constitute the budgetary authority adopting the Community’s budget and overseeing its implementation. The Executive Executive power in the EU is shared between the European Commission and the Council of EU. The Commission plays a major role in the EU’s policy-making process as EU laws are mainly enforced by Commission action.
One of the distinct functions of the Commission is initiating proposals for legislation. The Commission is the main institution preparing proposals. However, concerning common foreign and security policy and co-operation on justice and home affairs, the Council is the promoter of initiatives and also the institution implementing the policies. But the Commission may submit a proposal. The Commission has also the budgetary initiative, drawing up the preliminary draft budget, which is put to the Council. Even the Parliament has a right of initiative.
It has the possibility of asking the Commission to put forward a proposal and it is also involved in the budgetary procedure from the preparation stage, particularly in laying down the general guidelines and the type of spending. This is completely against the doctrine of separation of powers. Within this principle it is unthinkable that the same institution that is legislating is also the same body drafting the proposals for legislation. The Commission is also a negotiator of international trade and co-operation agreements with third countries, or groups of countries, which are put to the Council for conclusion.
In an ordinary legal system, both the negotiating and the concluding of international agreements would be made by the executive, which would then have to be presented to the legislature. In the EU, in some cases, the Council cannot even conclude the agreements by itself, but has to consult the Parliament or even have its assent before being able to do so. The Judiciary The only function that has remained more or less distinct within the EU is the judicial function. The judiciary comprises of the European Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance.
The Court of Justice is responsible for enhancing the effectiveness of EU law and integration. Its two main functions are to directly apply the law and a general responsibility for interpreting the provisions of the European Treaty. However, even here there is to some extent a mixture of power. The reason for this lies with the Commission, which is quasi-judicial. Under certain circumstances, the Commission can fine individuals, firms and organisations for infringing Treaty law. But its decisions can be appealed. The ECJ can be consulted by the Member States and enterprises when they want to appeal against fines imposed by the Commission.
Checks and balances Even though the system of the institutions of the EU is not compatible with the doctrine of the separation of powers the most important function of the doctrine still exists – institutional balance. Despite the mixture of the allocation of powers, there still remains a form of “checks and balances”. Commission proposals, actions and decisions are in various ways scrutinised, checked and judged by the other institutions. For instance, the Commission is answerable to the EP, which has the power to dismiss it by vote of censure or no confidence.
The Commission attends all the sessions of the EP and must explain and justify its policies if so requested by members of the house and it must reply to written or oral questions put by the MEPs. The Commission’s management of the EU budget is also scrutinised by the Court of Auditors which is responsible for examining the legality and regularity of revenue and expenditure and for ensuring the sound financial management of the EU budget. On the basis of the Court of Auditors’ reports, it is the EP which gives the final discharge for the execution of the annual budget.
The EP also exercises control over the Council; its representatives appearing regularly before the Parliament. Conclusion It can clearly be seen that the doctrine of separation of powers is not respected in the attribution of competences within the EU. However, complete separation of powers is possible neither in theory nor in practice, if by this is meant that each function is exercised in isolation from the others. Even in the US there is no complete separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judicial functions.
In fact, even Montesquieu did not mean that legislature and executive should not have any influence over the acts of each other, but only that neither should exercise the whole power of the other. Instead it can be argued that what is more important is that there is an elaborate system of checks and balances to enable control and influence to be exercised by each branch upon the others. The best example of this is the UK, where there is no clear separation of powers, but where we instead have a developed form of checks and balances to ensure that no arbitrary decisions are taken.
Although it can be argued whether the checks and balances that exist in the EU is as effective and elaborate as the ones in the US and the UK. In conclusion, the separation of powers is not respected in the attribution of competences within the EU. However, the lack of a clear, threefold allocation of functions is not necessary as long as there is an effective form of checks and balances.

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#065

Consider how the separation of powers established in the Constitution effect aspects of your current…

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Consider how the separation of powers established in the Constitution effect aspects of your current or future work. Share the position and viewpoint you are taking and some of the hurdles or protections this separation provides you in the capacity of your work.
In the an Online Library, in the Online books ebary database, locate the following book and read Chapter 1, “How Not to Read the Constitution,” pages 6-30. Tribe, L. H., & Dorf, M. C. (1991). How not to read the Constitution. In On reading the Constitution. (Chapter 1). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Consider how the separation of powers established in the Constitution effect aspects of your current or future work. Share the position and viewpoint you are taking and some of the hurdles or protections this separation provides you in the capacity of your work.
Topic: Consider how the separation of powers established in the Constitution effect aspects of your current or future work. Share the position and viewpoint you are taking and some of the hurdles or protections this separation provides you in the capacity of your work.

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#075

Describe factors that contribute to the development of infidelity, separation, or divorce.

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Describe factors that contribute to the development of infidelity, separation, or divorce.
Assignment: Infidelity and Divorce
FAt first glance, infidelity, separation, and divorce are issues that seemingly only relate to the couple involved, but these issues can impact all members of a family. Infidelity, separation, and divorce can affect the emotional and psychological development of children and create discord in extended families. However, the long-term implications for families that face these issues may be mitigated through appropriate counseling interventions.
It is important that you, as a future marriage, couple, and family counselor, use research to help you to select the right interventions for families going through infidelity, separation, and divorce. For this Assignment, you consider factors that contribute to the development of infidelity, separation, and divorce. Then, you examine evidence-based interventions.
To Prepare:
Review the article, “Outcomes of couples with infidelity in a community-based sample of couple therapy.” Consider the intervention strategies used and consider how the choice of intervention strategy affects the outcomes.
Review the other articles provided in this week’s resources. Consider the methods for addressing infidelity and related family issues in these cases. Think about the factors that contribute to infidelity in marriages and with couples.
Reflect on how infidelity and divorce could affect various members of a family, including children and the extended family of each partner.
Write your paper on infidelity and divorce and related family issues, using the instructions below as a guide:
Describe factors that contribute to the development of infidelity, separation, or divorce. Provide an example of each.
Describe two evidence-based interventions you might use to address these factors and explain why these interventions would be effective.
Submit your paper by Day 7.
Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
Suggested length: 2–3 pages, not including title and references.
Required Resources
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
Readings
Gladding, S. T. (2015). Family therapy: History, theory, and practice. (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Chapter 15, “Working with Substance-Related Disorders, Domestic Violence, and Child Abuse”
Atkins, D. C., Marín, R. A., Lo, T. T. Y., Klann, N., & Hahlweg, K. (2010). Outcomes of couples with infidelity in a community-based sample of couple therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(2), 212–216.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases
Balderrama-Durbin, C. M., Allen, E. S., & Rhoades, G. K. (2012). Demand and withdraw behaviors in couples with a history of infidelity. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(1), 11–17.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases
Perilla, J. L., Vasquez Serrata, J.,, Weinberg, J., & Lippy, C. A. (2012). Integrating women’s voices and theory: A comprehensive domestic violence intervention for Latinas. Women & Therapy, 35(1-2), 93–105.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases
Schade, L. C., & Sandberg, J. G. (2012). Healing the attachment injury of marital infidelity using emotionally focused couples therapy: A case illustration. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 40(5), 434–444.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases
Schaeffer, C. M., Swenson, C. C., Tuerk, E. H., & Henggeler, S. W. (2013). Comprehensive treatment for co-occurring child maltreatment and parental substance abuse: Outcomes from a 24-month pilot study of the MST-Building Stronger Families program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(8), 596–607.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases
Attachments:
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document iconweek_9-assignment_riptoe-a..docx
Topic: Describe factors that contribute to the development of infidelity, separation, or divorce.

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#075

In Regards To Separation Of Duties (from Your Readings), Answer The Following Questions: Why Should Duties Be Segregated? How Can Management Determine If Duties Are Properly Segregated? What If Management Has Inadequate Staff To Properly Segregate All Du

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#075

We can work on The doctrine of separation of powers

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What is the relevance of the doctrine of separation of powers in the modern society? Brings about the aspect of democracy. This is because the powers of the government are limited by the people since it’s a government of the people. No organ is above the other thereby ensuring all are equal. Brings about accountability of the different organs of the government. This is brought about by the checks and balances which are provided for in the constitution. Each organ keeps the “other on toes. ” Why is it necessary to separate powers? Prevent arbitrary power.
No single organ should have too much power. The different organs of government are supposed to compliment and assist each other in carrying out their duties. If one organ were more powerful than the other, it would lead to a form of dictatorship since that organ would have no one to stop it from doing as it wishes. Too much power should be limited in a way. Prevent abuse of power. This is because the organs are each in a way the others bodyguards, should the organs say be one or one of the organs have unlimited and unchecked power, it is likely to abuse its power.
Separation of power ensures that no single organ is able to abuse its power on account of the other organs are there to curtail any excesses of power. How is the doctrine of separation of powers applied in the various arms and levels of government under the new Kenya Legal system effective August 27, 2010? Independence of the judiciary. (Act 160 of the constitution) The independence of the judiciary is needed to protect the rights of the people.
It’s also responsible for the effective administration of justice in the country and thus has a duty to protect the people from the excesses powers of the government and action of the government. The judiciary is also the guardian of the constitution. It ensures that the executive actions of officials are in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and acts passed by parliament do not conflict with it. The law courts must be open to all persons. Thus it is said to be independent when all these decisions can be made without any fear or biasness.
The independency of the judiciary is assured by the provisions of the constitution. The legal profession. Critically examine the role of an advocate in Kenyan society in general, and in the judicial process in particular. Advocates help the court in achieving its duties through research and presentation of evidence to the court, leaving the courts with the duty of determining the outcome which considerably lessens the courts workload. Helps in realizing constitution rights. Advocates play a major role in representing people in courts and thus enable them to have access to justice.
Providing legal advice. Advocates play a major role in society by playing an advisory role to citizens in general who may have a legal problem or may be just curious about the law and how it works. What knowledge and skills does an advocate need in order to effectively play these roles? Requires knowledge of substantive law. Needs to know the rights and responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen well. By so doing they can easily tell if a crime has been committed or not, even before going to court to represent their client. Needs to know if a case can be taken to court.
Under what category does the case fall, is it a civil matter or a criminal matter. Needs to know procedural law. Advocates need to know all the processes a case takes from arrest to conviction and in details. Good communication skills. To facilitate proper communication between the advocate and the client, and between the advocate and the juries and judges in the courtroom. Needs to be assertive and fast on their feet since often inside a courtroom, things may tend to change and the case may throw the advocate off balance thus he/she must be quick witted.
Great research skills. This is essential in comprehending your clients, their needs, and to preparing legal strategies. What are the systematic challenges advocates face in their efforts to play these roles effectively in the judicial process? Bulkiness of the law. The law is bulky and as one is working on a case, he/she has to go through volumes of books and countless research. This is stressful and hectic to an advocate who has a limited amount of time to distil all the information into something manageable and logical. Technicality of procedure.
Procedures of the courts tend to be too technical in that many procedures are required even before one can take the matter to court. For example, when serving a plaint one has to have enough copies to give the defendant and then wait for the defences counsel to serve them. It’s generally a tiresome process. Cost. A lot of money is spent during research, filing and also fee to be paid to court depending on the matter. At times, a client may even agree to pay only on completion of the case hence the advocate has to use his/her on own money. Court schedule.
Hearing for cases and especially appeal cases is tiresome since the schedule is usually full. Take for example, the court of Appeal as of last year 2016 August, its official calendar had been booked up to this year 2017 November. This shows how difficult it is for one to even get a hearing in such a court. Complexity of suits. Some suits are complex since they require knowledge of different disciples. In a way, the advocates are required to have knowledge in various fields. For example, in the case concerning separation of Siamese twins, the advocates had to go to medical school to learn the human anatomy.
Alternative dispute resolution. Critically discuss the following alternative dispute resolution mechanisms: Arbitration. It’s the procedure for settling a dispute wherein the parties involved at the formation of a contract decide that if any dispute arise between them at a later stage, they will resolve it through this process only and not in a court of law. A neutral third party is appointed to solve the dispute between the parties and proceed to decide the liability of the defaulting party. Conciliation.
Similar to arbitration but the difference here is that the conciliator shall listen to the parties separately and then together in order to settle the dispute. The conciliator draws out a solution. Mediation. Process wherein a case has already been filed in court and once the judge hears the case decides that the matter can be solved outside the court hence being transferred to a mediation cell, wherein the matter is solved amicably. Solution given by the mediator must be acceptable to both parties.
Equity.
How are these doctrines of equity developed within the legal system?
Legal systems have incorporated mechanism for resolving disputes according to general principles of right. Equity must ensure that those who are harmed can find their relief and not used for unfair purposes.
(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic and binds all persons and all State organs at both levels of government.(2) No person may claim or exercise State authority except as authorized under this Constitution.(3) The validity or legality of this Constitution is not subject to challenge by or before any court or other State organ.(4) Any law, including customary law, that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the extent of the inconsistency, and any act or omission in contravention of this Constitution is invalid.(5) The general rules of international law shall form part of the law of Kenya.(6) Any treaty or convention ratified by Kenya shall form part of the law of Kenya under this Constitution.
The difference between the position of equity in the older constitutional dispensation and the current one is that; in the former constitutional order the doctrines of equity applied where written laws did not extend or apply. The new constitutional order changes this position by making the general principles of international law part of the Kenyan law. This means that the doctrines of equity automatically become part of the Kenyan laws without being subject to other statutes, a position it held in the former constitutional order.
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#075

Assignment Help-Causes human separation from nature

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Assignment Help-Causes human separation from nature
What causes human separation from nature?
How ought the human spirit respond to nature and dwell within it?
What does it mean to say that something is natural, and how does the human fit into the larger web of natural relationships?
How does spirituality or religion lead to more harmony  or greater fragmentation of the human with nature?
If we are still connected with nature, what are the attributes of those who are able to exist within nature while also dwelling within our technology-dependent society?
If we are not connected with nature, what are the  attributes of our social, political, familial, and natural relationships   that force such fragmentation?
What is the most appropriate ethical relationship the  human ought to have with nature?
What are concrete methods humans can use to reconnect with nature or enhance their growing relationship with nature?
Are there some cultures that naturally connect more  with nature? If so, what might we learn from those cultures if we are not  part of them?
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#075

Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances

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April 14th, 2018
Separation   of Powers/Checks and Balances
 For much of 2011 and 2012, public dissatisfaction with Congress rose to all time highs, with 70-80% expressing disapproval with how Congress does its job. Many commentators note that Americans are fed up with Washington “grid-lock” that makes government apparently unable to address important problems. Other observers believe that the national government is acting according to its design, based on separation of powers and checks and balances.  
Before writing your initial post, review the assigned resources. To easily access the resources from the Ashford University Library, please see the table located in the Course Materials section. 
In your initial post of at least 200-250 words, analyze how the U.S. Constitution implements separation of powers and checks and balances. Briefly explain why the constitutional framers based the new government on these ideas. Evaluate how separation of powers and checks and balances are working out in practice, today, justifying your assessment with persuasive reasoning and examples.  
Fully respond to all parts of the question. Write in your own words. Support your position with APA citations to two or more of the assigned resources required for this discussion. Please be sure that you demonstrate understanding of these resources, integrate them into your argument, and cite them properly. 
By Day 7, respond to at least two of your classmates’ initial posts. Your peer responses each must be at least 75 words. They must demonstrate critical thinking (e.g., ask a relevant question about your peer’s post while explaining why your question is significant, or state a perspective that contrasts with your peer’s while explaining or justifying your position). 
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#065

Get Help With Homework paper: Differentiate between checks and balances in the separation of power

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Get Help With Homework paper: Differentiate between checks and balances in the separation of power
“Common Law and Separation of Power” Please respond to the following:
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#075

Write an 400 – words minimum essay for the topic “separation anxiety”

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Write an 400 – words minimum essay for the topic “separation anxiety: how deportation divides families” based on the article I attached the file. Also can use outside source but with proper citations.
Times New Roman, 12-fonts, and double space is required.

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#075